Prelims Sure Shot
- Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA):
- MISA came into force in 1971 when Indira Gandhi was Prime Minister and it gave the government and law enforcement agencies the right to detain certain individuals in order to maintain internal security.
- Under this act, a person could be detained for a maximum period of 12 months.
- In the same decade, Gandhi declared a national emergency (1975-1977), under which, journalists, scholars and activists, among others, were detained without trial.
- Muslim Women Rights Day
Why in News
Recently, 1 August has been recorded as “Muslim Women Rights Day” in the country’s history to mark first anniversary of the passage of Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Act, 2019.
The law made triple talaq a criminal offence.
- Triple talaq is a practice mainly prevalent among India’s Muslim community following the Hanafi Islamic school of law.
- Under the practice, a Muslim man can divorce his wife by simply uttering “talaq” three times but women cannot pronounce triple talaq and are required to move a court for getting divorce under the Sharia Act, 1937.
- Triple talaq divorce is banned by many Islamic countries, including Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia.
Provisions of the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Act, 2019
- The Act makes all declaration of talaq, including in written or electronic form, to be void (i.e. not enforceable in law) and illegal.
- It also makes a declaration of talaq a cognizable offence ( only if information relating to the offence is given by a married woman against whom talaq has been declared), attracting up to three years imprisonment with a fine.
- The Magistrate may grant bail to the accused. The bail may be granted only after hearing the woman (against whom talaq has been pronounced), and if the Magistrate is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds for granting bail.
- A Muslim woman against whom talaq has been declared, is entitled to seek subsistence allowance from her husband for herself and for her dependent children.
- The Triple Talaq was held to be violative of Article 14 (the right to equality), which is held by the Supreme Court from Shah Bano case (1986) to Shayara Bano case in 2017.
- Article 25 of the Constitution guarantees religious freedom as Freedom of Practice and Propagation of Religion. Like all other Fundamental Rights, it is subject to restrictions and does not protect religious practices that can negatively affect the welfare of citizens.
- Hence, Article 25 is overridden by Article 14, which guarantees the Right to Equality as triple talaq denies a Muslim woman’s equality before the law.
- Article 25 is also subject to Article 15 (1) which states that the State “shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex…” Since triple talaq does not work in the favour of women, it violates Article 15 (1) of the Constitution.
- The implementation of the Act has shown a decline of about 82% in Triple Talaq cases in India. It has strengthened “self-reliance, self-respect and self-confidence” of the Muslim women of the country. The law is a step towards ensuring gender equality
- China Launches BeiDou Navigation Satellite System
Why in News
China has formally launched full global services of its BeiDou-3 Navigation Satellite System (BDS).
- The name BeiDou comes from Chinese word for the Big Dipper or Plough constellation..
- The navigation satellite system was completed in three steps: BDS-1 which provided services to China, BDS- 2 to provide services to the Asia-Pacific region and BDS-3 which provides services
- A hybrid constellation consisting of around 30 satellites in three kinds of orbits:
Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), Inclined Geo-Synchronous Orbit (IGSO) and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO).
Provides navigation signals of multiple frequencies, and is able to improve service accuracy by using combined multi-frequency signals.
Offers accurate positioning, navigation and timing, as well as short messaging communication, international search and rescue, satellite-based augmentation, ground augmentation and precise point positioning, etc.
The services are used in various fields by China including defence, transportation, agriculture, fishing, and disaster relief.
It will be the fourth global satellite navigation system after the USA GPS, Russia’s GLONASS and European Union’s Galileo.
It is said to be much more accurate than the USA’s GPS. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a general term describing any satellite constellation that provides Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) services on a global basis.
Challenge to the Centrality of the USA:
- Beidou is being seen as a rival to America’s GPS, Russia’s GLONASS and the European Union’s Galileo networks.
- The development of its own secure and independent navigation system will boost China’s military strength, especially amidst rising US-China
- The better accuracy and experience of BDS, as claimed by China will lure companies to sign-up for it. As the global market is being increasingly dominated by an information-based economy, China is expected to reap huge economic benefit from BDS.
China’s Hold on Other Nations:
- China is promoting its use in the countries signed-up for its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Pakistan has already started using BDS. This will certainly give China economic and political leverage over nations adopting this system.
Edge over India:
- This has also given China a competitive edge over India, whose IRNSS-NavIC is still a regional navigation system
China’s Authority in Space:
- The space program of China has seen rapid advancements in past few years with the launch of Tianwen-1 rover mission to Mars. China has also constructed an experimental space station and sent a pair of rovers to the surface of the moon (Chang’e-4). BDS is another step in marking China’s presence in Space.
IRNSS ― NavIC (India)
- The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), which was later given the operational name of NavIC or NAVigation with Indian Constellation, is the regional satellite navigation system of India.
- Launched and operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), IRNSS covers India and nearby regions extending up to 1,500 km.
- The constellation consists of 7 active satellites, out of which three are located in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and four in Inclined Geo-Synchronous Orbit (IGSO).
- An orbit is a regular, repeating path that an object in space takes around another one.
- . According to the height of satellites from the earth, the orbits can be classified as High Earth orbit (mostly weather and communication satellites), Medium Earth orbit (most navigation satellites) and Low Earth orbit (Scientific satellites like NASA’s Earth observing Fleet).
Geo-Synchronous orbit :
- A geosynchronous orbit is any orbit which has a period equal to the earth’s rotational period.
- A Geostationary Orbit is a time of Geosynchronous orbit in the same plane as that of the equator.
- Operation Breathing Space: India-Israel
Why in News
Recently, an Israeli team arrived in India with a multi-pronged mission, codenamed Operation Breathing Space to work with Indian authorities on the Covid-19 response.
Development of Test Kits:
- India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Israel’s defence ministry research and development team are working together to develop four different kinds of rapid testing kit for Covid-19 which can give the result within 30 seconds.
Types of Tests:
- The tests include an audio test, a breath test, thermal testing, and a polyamino test In the audio test, a patient’s voice would be recorded and evaluated through artificial intelligence and machine learning.
- In the breath test the patient will blow into a tube that will detect the virus using terra-hertz (high frequency) waves.
- Thermal testing will enable identification of the virus in a saliva sample. Polyamino acids test seeks to isolate proteins related to Covid-19.
India Specific Approach:
- The kits will be jointly developed after trials on Indian Covid-19 patients. The tests have already been tried on a small sample of Israeli patients.
- The Israeli team has brought robotic equipment, and wrist monitors that will help doctors and nurses monitor a patient without increasing risks of infection to themselves.
- The quicker test will help authorities to take quicker prevention measures, which will reduce the spread of the virus among people.
- Initiative under Gramodyog Vikas Yojana
Why in News
Recently, the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises has approved a programme for the benefit of artisans involved in manufacturing of Agarbatti under the Gramodyog Vikas Yojana.
- The programme will initially include four pilot projects, including one in the north eastern part of the country.
- Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) will provide training and assistance as well as work and raw material to artisans working in this area, in tie-up with Agarbatti manufacturing machines.
- KVIC is a statutory body established by Khadi And Village Industries Commission Act, 1956.
- It is an apex organisation under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises charged with the planning, promotion, organisation and implementation of programs for the development of Khadi and other village industries in the rural areas
- Revival of Agarbatti manufacturing in the villages and small towns. Generation of sustainable employment and increase in wages for the traditional Artisans.
- Mitigation of the gap between the indigenous ‘production and demand’. Reduction in import of ‘Agarbatti’ in the country.
- The Govt of India had earlier placed the ‘Agarbatti’ item from “Free” trade to “Restricted” trade in the import policy and enhanced the import duty from 10% to 25% on ‘round bamboo sticks’ used for manufacturing of Agarbatti.
Gramodyog Vikas Yojana
- Gramodyog Vikas Yojana is one of the two components of Khadi Gramodyog Vikas Yojana which aims to promote and develop the village industries through common facilities, technological modernization, training etc.
Activities of existing dedicated verticals of Village Industries:
- This includes Agro Based & Food Processing Industry, Mineral Based Industry, Handmade Paper, Leather & Plastic Industry among others.
- Under the Human Resource Development and Skill Training components, exclusive capacity building of staff as well as the artisans.
Marketing & Publicity:
- The village institutions will be provided market support by way of preparation of product catalogue, Industry directory, market research, new marketing techniques, buyer seller meet, arranging exhibitions etc.