Prelims Exam

Gudi Padwa

  • Celebrated on the first day of Chaitra month in the Hindu calendar, marking the Marathi and Konkani Hindu new year.
  • Gudi Padwa translates to “Gudi” (flag) and “Padwa” (first day of lunar fortnight). A Gudi is hoisted on this day.
  • Significance:
    • Arrival of spring and reaping of Rabi crops.
    • Believed to be the day Lord Brahma created the universe.
    • Beginning of harvest season in Maharashtra.
    • Promotes traditional arts through Gudi making and rangoli drawing.

Ural River

  • Europe’s third longest river, originating in the southern Ural Mountains and flowing 2,428 kilometers to the Caspian Sea.
  • Historically known as the Yaik, it forms a natural boundary between Europe and Asia.
  • Economic Importance:
    • Natural waterway for trade and transportation (navigable up to Oral, Kazakhstan).
    • Hydroelectric power generation through dams (e.g., Iriklinsky dam).

Girl Empowerment Mission (GEM)

  • Launched by NTPC Limited, India’s largest integrated power company, as a CSR initiative.
  • Aimed at girls from underprivileged sections to tackle gender inequality.
  • Program:
    • One-month workshop during summer holidays.
    • Focuses on health, hygiene, safety, fitness, sports, and yoga.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

  • Self-regulating business model promoting social accountability.
  • Benefits:
    • Improves society.
    • Enhances company brand image.
  • Categories:
    • Environmental impacts
    • Ethical responsibility
    • Philanthropic endeavors
    • Financial responsibilities
  • Mandatory provision in India under the Companies Act, 2013.

Peter Higgs: Physicist Behind Higgs Boson Particle

  • British physicist who proposed the Higgs boson (God particle) in 1964 to explain particle mass.
  • Theorised a subatomic particle that gives mass to other particles.
  • Theory confirmed in 2012 at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider.
  • Awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics with Francois Englert.

Lavender Cultivation

  • CSIR interventions led to the growth of lavender cultivation and product development in India.
  • Lavender:
    • Small evergreen shrubs with purple flowers.
    • Native to the Mediterranean region but suitable for India’s rainfed temperate regions.
    • Success in J&K earned it the name “Purple Revolution.”
  • Benefits:
    • Therapeutic and aromatic herb.
    • Growing domestic and international markets for Kashmiri lavender.
    • Profitable for farmers with sustained demand and organized activities.


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