1. Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda Bill 2020

The issue in news

The Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda Bill 2020 has been passed by Rajya Sabha.

Main points

  • The Bill was earlier passed by the Lok Sabha.
  • This paves the way to establish a state-of-the-art Ayurvedic institution called the Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda (ITRA) at Jamnagar, Gujarat, and to confer the status of Institution of National Importance (INI) to it.
  • The ITRA is sought to be established by conglomerating the presently existing Ayurveda institutes at the Gujarat Ayurved University campus, Jamnagar.
  • The Bill is expected to give further autonomy to the institute and also help it to demonstrate high standards of such education and to emerge as a lighthouse institution to the entire AYUSH Sector.
  • ITRA will be the first institution with INI status in the AYUSH sector, and this will enable the institution to be independent and innovative in the matter of deciding course content and pedagogy.


  1. Defense Technology and Trade Initiative

The issue in news

Indian and U.S. Defense Delegations conduct Virtual Discussion on Defense Cooperation.

Main points

The 10th Defense Technology and Trade Initiative (DTTI) Group Meeting was held virtually.


U.S.-India Defense Technology and Trade Initiative (DTTI):

  • The DTTI is a mechanism by which senior leaders from the defence establishment of both India and the US meet and discuss challenges and opportunities for growth in defence cooperation.
  • Generally, DTTI meetings are held twice a year.
  • The aim of the DTTI Group is to bring sustained leadership focus to the bilateral defense trade relationship and create opportunities for co-production and co-development of defense equipment.
  • Four Joint Working Groups focused on land, naval, air, and aircraft carrier technologies have been established under DTTI to promote mutually agreed projects within their domains.


Aims of the DTTI:

  • Transform the bilateral defense relationship into one that is limited only by independent strategic decisions, rather than bureaucratic obstacles or inefficient procedures.
  • Strengthen India’s defense industrial base by moving away from the traditional “buyer-seller” dynamic towards a more collaborative approach.
  • Explore new areas of technological collaboration from science and technology cooperation through co-development and co-production. Expand U.S.-Indian business ties.


  1. G20 Environment Ministers Meet

The issue in news

Global Initiative to reduce Land Degradation and the Coral Reef program launched at G20 Environment Ministers Meet.

Main points

  • The Global Initiative on Reducing Land Degradation aims to strengthen the implementation of existing frameworks to prevent, halt,
  • and reverse land degradation within G20 member states and globally, taking into account possible implications on the achievement of other SDGs and adhering to the principle of doing no harm.
  • The Global Coral Reef R&D Accelerator Platform is an innovative action-oriented initiative aimed at creating a global research and development (R&D) program to advance research, innovation and capacity building in all facets of coral reef conservation, restoration,
  • and adaptation, and strengthen ongoing efforts and commitments made to enhance coral reefs conservation and their further degradation.


Land Degradation

  • Land degradation is the deterioration or loss of the productive capacity of the soils for the present and future.
  • It is a global challenge that affects everyone through food insecurity, higher food prices, climate change, environmental hazards, and the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services.
  • Land degradation is one of the world’s most pressing environmental problems and it will worsen without rapid remedial action.
  • Globally, about 25 percent of the total land area has been degraded.
  • When land is degraded, soil carbon and nitrous oxide are released into the atmosphere, making land degradation one of the most important contributors to climate change.
  • Scientists opine that 24 billion tons of fertile soil were being lost per year, largely due to unsustainable agriculture practices. If this trend continues, 95 percent of the Earth’s land areas could become degraded by 2050.




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