1. E-Lok Adalats

The issue in news

27 E-Lok Adalats organized in 15 states.

Main points

  • During the pandemic-induced lockdown, the various legal services authorities (NALSA and the state legal services authorities) adapted to the new normal and moved Lok Adalats to the virtual platform.
  • From June to October, 27 E-Lok Adalats had been organised in 27 states leading to the disposal of more than 2.5 lakh cases.
  • In November, such E-Lok Adalats were organised in Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Telangana which helped dispose of about 12600 cases.
  • Not only do the E-Lok Adalats help people of the marginalised and weaker sections access justice during difficult times, they are also cost-effective as it eliminates the need for organisational expenses.


Lok Adalats

  • A Lok Adalat is one of the substitute dispute redressal mechanisms.
  • National Legal Services Authority alongside other Legal Services Institutions conducts Lok Adalats.
  • It is a forum where cases or disputes incomplete in the court of law are compromised cordially.


  • The Lok Adalat is chairman, two members, and one social worker.
  • The chairman must be a sitting or retired judicial officer.
  • The other two members should be a lawyer


  • The individuals determining the cases in the Lok Adalats are called the Members of the Lok Adalats
  • They have the role of statutory intermediaries only
  • They do not have any judicial role


  • Under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 Lok Adalats have been given statutory status.

Final award

  • Under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 the decision made by the Lok Adalats is considered to be a verdict of a civil court and is ultimate and binding on all parties.

No appeal

  • There is no provision for an appeal against the verdict made by Lok Adalat
  • If the parties are not satisfied with the award of the Lok Adalat though there is no provision for an appeal, they are free to initiate litigation.

No fee

  • There is no court fee payable when a dispute is filed in a Lok Adalat.
  • If a dispute pending in the court of law is referred to the Lok Adalat and is settled later, the court fee originally paid in the court on the petition is also reimbursed back to the parties.

Amicable Resolutions

  • The Lok Adalat shall not decide the dispute so mentioned at its own instance, instead the same would be decided on the basis of the compromise between the parties.
  • The members shall assist the parties in a sovereign and impartial manner in their attempt to reach a cordial settlement of their dispute.



  1. National Crisis Management Committee

The issue in news

Union Cabinet Secretary chairs a National Crisis Management Committee meeting to review the status of the impending cyclone.

National Crisis Management Committee

  • The NCMC was constituted under the Cabinet Secretariat for effective implementation of relief measures in the wake of a natural calamity.
  • Headed by the Cabinet Secretary, it is one of the top-level decision-making bodies with respect to disaster management.
  • It oversees the command, control and coordination of disaster response.



  1. Aviation Safety Awareness Week 2020

The issue in news

AAI observes Aviation Safety Awareness Week 2020.

About Aviation Safety Awareness Week:

  • The Airports Authority of India (AAI) observes Aviation Safety Awareness Week during the last week of November every year.
  • To raise awareness of aviation safety, AAI undertook various employee engagement programs at the airports and ANS stations like reviewing documents and facilities, mock exercises, preventive maintenance, etc.
  • Various social campaigns too will be rolled out to raise awareness on the issue. Banners and posters are being displayed across AAI offices and operational centres to educate both external and internal stakeholders on the significance of the Safety Awareness Week.


  1. ATAL Faculty Development Programmes

The issue in news

Union Education Minister inaugurates 46 online ATAL Faculty Development Programmes (FDPs) organised by AICTE.

Main points

  • 46 online AICTE Training and Learning (ATAL) Academy Faculty Development Programmes (FDPs) were inaugurated to train teachers of higher education institutions associated with the All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) in thrust and emerging areas in technology.
  • The FDPs will be conducted in 22 Indian states.


ATAL Academies:

  • The main objective of the ATAL Academy is to provide quality technical education in the country and to promote research and entrepreneurship through training in various emerging fields. IITs, IIITs, NITs CU and research labs are organizing these ATAL FDPs.
  • The ATAL Academy seeks to establish AICTE Training and Learning (ATAL) cells in all the technical institutions, Universities, Deemed-to-be Universities and other institutions of technical learning.
  • The ATAL Academies also conduct a series of training programmes in various emerging fields across the country.
  • Currently, there are eleven ATAL academies in India, spread all over the country.
  • The ATAL Academy has also been included in the Book of World Records, London for training over 1 lakh people in 1000 programs under ‘FDP’


  1. Sentinel-6 Satellite: Jason-CS Mission

The issue in news

Recently, Copernicus Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich satellite was launched from the Vandenberg Air Force base in California aboard a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket.

Main points

About the mission:

  • Jason Continuity of Service (Jason-CS) mission is designed to measure the height of the ocean, which is a key component in understanding how the Earth’s climate is changing. 
  • The spacecraft consists of two satellites One of them was launched recently, and the other one called Sentinel-6B, to be launched in 2025.
  • It is developed jointly by the European Space Agency (ESA), NASA, European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (Eumetsat), the USA’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the EU, with contributions from France’s National Centre for Space Studies (CNES). 
  • Significance:
    • Ensure the continuity of sea-level observations
    • Understanding how the ocean stores and distributes heat, water and carbon in the climate system.
    • Measure water vapour along this path and find its position using GPS and ground-based lasers.
    • Support operational oceanography, by providing improved forecasts of ocean currents, wind and wave conditions. 
    • Improve both short-term forecasting for weather predictions, for instance for seasonal conditions like El Niño and La Niña.

Measuring the height of the ocean:

  • The satellite will send pulses to the Earth’s surface and measure how long they take to return to it, which will help in measuring the sea surface height. 
  • As per NASA, this will help in monitoring critical changes in ocean currents and heat storage only from space, by measuring height of the sea surface.
  • This will in turn help in foreseeing the effects of the changing oceans on the climate.

The issue in news

To mark the occasion of 3 years of UMANG, the Union Minister for IT launched the UMANG’s international version in coordination with Ministry of External Affairs for select countries that include USA, UK, Canada, Australia, UAE, Netherlands, Singapore, Australia and New Zealand.


Main points


  • It will help Indian international students, NRIs and Indian tourists abroad, to avail Government of India services, anytime. It will also help in taking India to the world through ‘Indian Culture’ services available on UMANG and create interest amongst foreign tourists to visit India.
  • The UMANG mobile app (Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance) is a Government of India all-in-one single multi-lingual, multi-service Mobile App providing access to high impact services of various Government of India Departments and State Governments


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