1. black hole researchers get Nobel Prize for Physics

Roger Penrose of Britain, Reinhard Genzel of Germany and Andrea Ghez of the U.S. have won the Nobel Physics Prize for their research on the black hole.

  • The term “black hole” refers to a point in space where matter is so compressed as to create a gravity field from which even light cannot escape. Black holes are super dense objects formed when a heavy star collapses under the weight of its own gravity.
  • Mr Penrose was honoured for showing that the general theory of relativity leads to the formation of black holes, while Mr Genzel and Ms Ghez, were jointly awarded for discovering that an invisible and extremely heavy object governs the orbits of stars at the centre of the galaxy.
  • Andrea Ghez is just the fourth woman to receive the physics prize since 1901. The first woman to win the prize was Marie Curie in 1903, who was also the first person to receive two Nobel prizes when she won the 1911 chemistry prize.


  1. Services PMI shows slump easing, but job losses swell
  • The Nikkei/IHS Markit Services Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) has witnessed an improvement with the pace of contraction in services sector activity easing considerably in September after the government lifted some COVID-19 restrictions and relaxed lockdown rules.
  • The services sector accounts for about 55% of India’s economy and almost a third of its jobs.
  • This sign of stabilization in the services sector along with recent indications of India’s manufacturing sector also recovering augurs well for India, Asia’s third-largest economy.
  • However, sub-indexes tracking domestic and foreign demand have remained firmly in contraction territory, leading firms to cut their workforce.


  1. Child should learn mother tongue: SC
  • The Andhra Pradesh government has approached the Supreme Court challenging its State High Court decision to strike down a government order which made English medium education compulsory from classes I to VI in primary, upper primary and high schools under all managements from 2020-21.
  • Andhra Pradesh government’s argument has been that given the limitations of education in the vernacular medium, English education was expected to empower a large number of people.
  • The Supreme Court while agreeing to hear the matter has noted that a child has to learn his mother tongue to gain a foundation.


  1. National Startup Awards 2020

The issue in news

Results of the National Startup Awards 2020 released.

Main points

  • To know more about the National Startup Awards 2020, check PIB dated 5th Oct 2020.
  • During this event, the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) also launched the following:

Startup India Showcase:

  • A part of the Startup India portal, this is intended to be an online discovery platform for the most promising startups of the country.
  • The startups showcased here shall be handpicked by experts and will span across different sectors like FinTech, EdTech, Social Impact among others.
  • The showcase will help industry, investors and public authorities find and connect with startups for potential partnerships, investments and public procurement respectively.
  • This showcase will help the ecosystem connect with them better while also serving as an inspiration.


Blockchain-based Certificate Verification System

  • This feature will enable instant verification and access to certificates of recognitions issued by DPIIT.
  • This feature introduces an added layer of security to the startup certificates.
  • It can be accessed by government departments, procurement entities, investors, and other third parties to verify the status of recognized startups for accessing different opportunities.


  1. PLI Scheme

The issue in news

The Ministry of Electronics and Information and Technology (MeitY) has approved 16 eligible applicants under the PLI Scheme.

Main points

  • The Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme for Large Scale Electronics Manufacturing, notified in April 2020, extends an incentive of 4% to 6% on incremental sales (over the base year) of goods under target segments that are manufactured in India to eligible companies, for a period of five years subsequent to the base year (FY2019-20).
  • The Union Minister for Electronics and IT opined that the PLI scheme has been a huge success in terms of the applications received from global as well as domestic mobile phone manufacturing companies and electronic components manufacturers.
  • Over the next 5 years, the approved companies under the PLI Scheme are expected to lead to a total production of more than INR 10.5 lakh crore.
  • The companies approved under the scheme are expected to promote exports significantly. Out of the total production of INR 10.5 lakh crore in the next 5 years, around 60% will be contributed by exports of the order of INR 6.5 lakh crore.
  • The companies approved under the scheme will bring additional investment in electronics manufacturing to the tune of INR 11,000 crore.
  • The companies approved under the scheme will generate more than 2 lakh direct employment opportunities in the next 5 years along with the creation of additional indirect employment of nearly 6 lakhs.


  1. Wildlife Week

The issue in news

Wildlife Week is celebrated all over the country in the month of October from 2nd to 8th October every year with the view to preserve India’s fauna.

About Wildlife Week:

  • First conceptualised in 1952, the idea behind celebrating the Week is to take steps to save the animal species of India from extinction.
  • Wildlife Day was observed from 1955 and it was upgraded to Wildlife Week in 1957.
  • The celebration involves creating awareness among the people about wildlife conservation and its importance.

Objectives of the Wildlife Week:

  • To make people more aware of the conservation and protection of wildlife.
  • To focus people’s attention on the importance of conservation of wildlife.
  • To implement more services to preserve wildlife.
  • To discuss all the issues related to the preservation of wildlife.

Wildlife Week 2020 theme: RoaR (Roar and Revive) – Exploring Human-Animal Relationships.



The issue in news

Multiple options for COVID-19 detection kits by start-ups on the cards through the support of the CAWACH Initiative of NSTEDB, DST.


  • The Centre for Augmenting WAR with COVID-19 Health Crisis (CAWACH) is an initiative by the National Science & Technology Entrepreneurship Development Board (NSTEDB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India.
  • CAWACH supports innovations in the areas of diagnostics, devices, informatics including bio-informatics & information management systems, any intervention for the control of COVID-19 and/or startup ideas to address/mitigate various challenges faced by country/society due to the severe impact of COVID-19.
  • It offers funding to the tune of Rs. 50 lakhs to Rs. 200 lakhs to selected startups.
  • The nodal agency for CAWACH is the National Science & Technology Entrepreneurship Development Board (NSTEDB) under the Department of Science and Technology (DST).


  1. National Awards for Science & Technology Communication

The issue in news

The National Council for Science & Technology Communications invites nominations for National Awards for Science & Technology Communication for 2020.

About the Awards:

  • The awards, carrying a citation, a memento, and a cash award, are presented every year to an individual or an institution for outstanding contribution in the field of science and technology communication and for promoting scientific temper, which has created a significant impact in the country during the last five years in 6 categories.

The categories are:

  • Outstanding efforts in science & technology communication
  • Science & technology communication through print media including books and magazines
  • Science & technology popularization among children
  • Translation of popular science & technology literature
  • Science & technology communication through innovative and traditional methods
  • Science & technology communication in the electronic medium
  • The awards are conferred annually and are open to all Indian citizens above 35 years of age as well as to institutions registered in India or created by the Central/State governments/Union Territories recommended in writing by a competent authority.


  1. Shelters for Migratory Birds: Sambhar Lake

The issue in news

A temporary shelter will be build for migratory birds in Rajasthan  near the Sambhar Lake (near Jaipur) before 2020’s winter season.

Main points

  • Every year, birds in large number come to Sambar Lake from the cold northern regions of Central Asia.
  • More than 20,000 migratory birds died due to avian botulism(a neuro-muscular illness caused by Botulinum -natural toxin, that is produced by bacteria, Clostridium botulinum. ) in the lake, In 2019.
  • Rajasthan High Court has taken  suo motu cognisance of this issue of mass death. an investigation was conducted by expert committee and recommendations were made .
  • The Court has constituted a seven-member expert committee to study the impact of salt-forming and identify any illegal salt mining in the lake.
  • It has suggested the state government seek the centre’s support for more funds for creating an infrastructure for the safety and security of birds.
  • Sambhar Lake is India’s largest inland saline water body located near Jaipur in
  • It is surrounded on all sides by the Aravali hills.
  • Sambhar has been designated as a Ramsar site (recognised wetland of international importance)


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