The Hindu Newspaper Self Analysis


GS-2 Mains

Topic-Report on ‘enclaves’ highlights gaps in promise and delivery


More than four years after the historic Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) between India and Bangladesh, a report released by civil rights organisations on the situation in erstwhile enclaves states that protest and resistance have become an essential part of life in enclaves in India.


  • Indo-Bangladesh Land Boundary Agreement (LBA), provided for the exchange of enclaves between the two countries and it necessitated the development and integration of Bangladeshi enclaves in India and addressing issues of rehabilitation of returnees from Indian enclaves in Bangladesh.
  • The 2015 LBA was signed in Bangladesh. The historic agreement facilitated the transfer of 111 enclaves, adding up to 17,160.63 acres, from India to Bangladesh.
  • Conversely, India received 51 enclaves, adding up to 7,110.02 acres, which were in Bangladesh.


  • Despite the LBA being a positive step towards initiating an exchange of territories, there is agreement amongst scholars and analysts that the LBA does not denote a complete break with the pre-LBA situation.
  • There are marked continuities in the problems that existed in the pre-LBA years, although the nature and context of the problems have perceptibly changed.
  • On India’s part, the spotlight has now shifted from the identity crisis faced by erstwhile enclave dwellers in the pre-LBA situation, to issues of poor governance, as well as conflict of interest between the Centre and the state in the post-LBA years.
  • The intractable discord regarding the implementation of the measures as promised to the new citizens, coupled with lack of coordination between the Centre and the state in India, has apparently transformed the enclaves into hotbeds of local politics.


GS-2 Mains

Topic-Nagaland brings ILP in Dimapur

The Nagaland government has extended the Inner Line Permit (ILP) system to Dimapur, the commercial hub of the State.


  • The decision makes it mandatory for “every non-indigenous person” who entered the district after November 21, 1979, to obtain an ILP within 90 days.
  • The notification said non-indigenous persons living in Dimapur prior to November 21, 1979, would have to produce documents as evidence to get a certificate from the Deputy Commissioner for exemption from the permit system.
  • Except for Dimapur, the ILP has been applicable to the rest of Nagaland. Known as “mini India”, Dimapur district has a mixed population.

Exempt from Citizenship Amendment Bill:

  • Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram, protected by the ILP requirement, have been exempted from the provisions of the CAB along with the whole of Meghalaya, Mizoram and the tribal areas of Tripura and Assam as covered in the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution.
  • Residents of other states have to mandatorily obtain an ILP to visit the protected states.
  • On Monday, Home Minister Amit Shah told the Lok Sabha that Manipur would be brought under the ILP system, exempting it from provisions of the CAB. Except for non-tribal areas in Assam and Tripura, the entire northeast has been exempted from the CAB.
  • There have been protests across the northeastern States against the Bill that nullifies the 1985 Assam Accord, which called for detection and deportation of anyone who entered the State after March 24, 1971.
  • The Bill makes the Accord redundant as it is likely to benefit non-Muslims among the over 19 lakh people excluded from the National Register of Citizens.

Inner Line Permit (ILP):

  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) is an official travel document issued by the Government of India to allow inward travel of an Indian citizen into a protected area for a limited period.
  • It is obligatory for Indian citizens from outside those states to obtain a permit for entering into the protected state.


GS-3 Mains

Topic-Google liable for defamation cases before Act change: SC

In a shock for online platforms like Google, the Supreme Court has held that internet intermediaries cannot be protected from criminal defamation cases registered against them prior to October 27, 2009.


  • It was only on October 27, 2009 that Parliament amended the Information Technology Act of 2000 to protect online intermediaries from liability for criminally defamatory content published in them by third parties.
  • The amended Section 79 of the 2000 Act provided that “an intermediary shall not be liable for any third party information, data, or communication link made available or hosted by him.”
  • The amendment gave almost blanket protection to intermediaries from legal action under Section 499/500 (criminal defamation) of the Indian Penal Code.

In the recent judgement, it was held that Section 79 of the Act, prior to its substitution, did not protect an intermediary in regard to the offence under Section 499/500 of the IPC.



GS-1 Mains

Topic-U.S., Saudi Arabia at bottom of climate class’

The U.S. and Saudi Arabia are among the major polluters showing hardly any signs of reducing their greenhouse gas production, a global assessment of countries’ emissions trajectories said at United Nations climate talks.

The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) :

CCPI measures the emissions, renewable energy share and climate policies of 57 countries and the European Union.


  • The 2015 accord saw nations agree to work towards limiting global temperature rises to “well below” two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
  • China, the world’s largest single emitter, was found to have taken “medium action” due to its high investment in renewables.
  • India, for the first time, ranks among the top 10 in this year’s Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI).
  • The current levels of per capita emissions and energy use in India, ranked 9th in the “high category”, are still comparatively low and, along with ambitious 2030 targets, result in high ratings for the greenhouse gas emissions and energy use categories, said the report.


  • CCPI found the U.S. ranks last, followed by Saudi Arabia and Australia, although several countries did report falls in emissions last year, largely due to an industry-wide fade out of coal.
  • While climate performance varied greatly — even within the EU, with Sweden leading the way — the report found that none of the countries surveyed were currently on a path compatible with the Paris climate goals.



GS-3 Mains

Topic-Capital takes steps to help India better its ease of business ranking

  • To improve India’s position in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business ranking, different government bodies in Delhi are taking the online route and also interacting with stakeholders such as architects following directions from the Centre.
  • India has continued to improve its performance in Ease of Doing Business under Construction Permits indicator achieving 27th rank in World Bank’s Doing Business Report [DBR], 2020 as against 52 in DBR, 2019. Now, the target is to get into the top 10 countries in Ease of Doing Business in Construction Permits.
  • The ranking has different categories such as acquiring construction permits, starting a business, trading across borders and resolving insolvency. The rankings in the case of India are based on samples and audits done in Mumbai and Delhi only.


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