1. Jharkhand Formation Day

The issue in news

Jharkhand state was formed on 15th November 2000.


The state of Jharkhand was carved out of Bihar after a long struggle by the people of Jharkhand.

The day also marks the birth anniversary of legendary freedom fighter from Jharkhand, Birsa Munda. Hence, 15th November is also celebrated as the Jayanti of Birsa Munda


  • Birsa Munda (1875 – 1900) was an Indian tribal freedom fighter, religious leader, and folk hero who belonged to the Munda tribe.
  • He spearheaded a tribal religious millenarian movement that arose in the Bengal Presidency (now Jharkhand) in the late 19th century, during the British Raj.
  • The revolt mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon.
  • His slogan threatening the British Raj—Abua raj seter jana, maharani raj tundu jana (“Let the kingdom of the queen be ended and our kingdom be established”)—is remembered even today.
  • His portrait hangs in the Indian Parliament Museum; he is the only tribal leader to have been so honoured.



The issue in news

The Leonid meteor showers are currently making their yearly appearance, and will reach their peak in India on November 17 and 18. In 2020, these showers are active from November 6th to November 30th.


Main points

  • The Leonids emerge from the comet Tempel-Tuttle, which requires 33 years to revolve once around the Sun.
  • These meteors are bright and among the fastest moving– travelling at speeds of 71 km per second. During this year’s showers, peaks of around 10 to 15 meteors are expected to be seen every hour.
  • The Leonid showers include fireballs– bright and large meteors than can last longer than average meteors, and “earthgazers”– meteors which appear close to the horizon with colourful and long tails.
  • Meteor showers are named after the constellation they appear to be coming from. The Leonids originate from the constellation Leo the Lion– the groups of stars which form a lion’s mane.

What is a meteor shower?

  • On its journey around the Sun, the Earth passes through large swathes of cosmic debris.
  • The debris is essentially the remnants of comets — great frigid chunks of matter that leave behind dirty trails of rocks and ice that linger long after the comets themselves have passed.
  • As the Earth wades through this cloud of comet waste, the bits of debris create what appears from the ground to be a fireworks display in the sky — known as a meteor shower


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