Topic-1 : The Hindu Editorial Summary : Curbing Black Carbon Emissions in India

Question : Discuss the significance of curbing black carbon emissions in India’s efforts towards climate mitigation and sustainable development, highlighting challenges and potential solutions.

India’s Climate Goals

  • Net-zero emissions by 2070 (pledged at COP26).
  • Focus on renewable energy:
    • Achieved 180 GW capacity by 2023.
    • Targeting 500 GW by 2030.

Black Carbon – A Threat

  • Emitted from incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels.
  • Contributes to global warming and health risks like heart disease, birth complications, and premature death.
  • Major sources in India (2016 study):
    • Residential sector – 47%
    • Industries – 22%
    • Diesel vehicles – 17%
    • Open burning – 12%

Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY)

  • Launched in 2016 to provide free LPG connections to poor households.
  • Aims to reduce black carbon by offering a cleaner alternative to traditional fuels.
  • Challenges:
    • Up to 50% of PMUY beneficiaries still use traditional fuels due to:
      • Shortage of LPG.
      • High cost of LPG compared to free alternatives like firewood.
    • Women and children disproportionately affected.

Government’s Role

  • Increasing LPG subsidy: ₹300 from ₹200 (Oct 2023).
  • However, LPG prices still high even with subsidy.
  • Need to address:
    • Affordability – make clean fuel accessible.
    • Availability – improve last-mile connectivity in rural areas.

Potential Solution: Local Production of Coal-Bed Methane (CBM) Gas

  • Cleaner fuel with lower black carbon emissions.
  • Panchayats can take initiative for local production through composting biomass.
  • Ensures access to clean cooking fuel for rural households.


  • Prioritizing black carbon reduction helps India:
    • Address regional health concerns.
    • Achieve Sustainable Development Goal of clean energy access.
    • Become a leader in climate mitigation.




Topic-2 : The Hindu Editorial Summary : Sickle Cell Disease and Treatment Challenges in India

Question : Discuss the challenges associated with the treatment of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) in India, highlighting issues of inadequate access to essential therapies and the potential of CRISPR gene-editing technology.

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)

  • Inherited blood disorder causing red blood cells to become sickle-shaped.
  • Reduces oxygen flow, leading to pain, organ damage, and early death.
  • India has the third highest number of SCD births globally.
  • Recognized as a disability under the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016.

Treatment Issues

  • National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission (2023):Aims to eliminate SCD by 2047.
  • Current treatment and care are inadequate and inaccessible, especially for marginalized communities.

Examples of Limited Access:

  • Hydroxyurea:Reduces pain and improves survival rates, but only available in some tertiary-level facilities.
  • Blood Transfusions:Essential therapy, but limited availability at district-level facilities.
  • Pain Medication:Painkillers, anti-inflammatories, and opioids are often scarce.
  • Bone Marrow Transplants (BMT):Previously the only cure, but limited by:
    • Difficulty finding matched donors.
    • High cost in private facilities.
    • Long waiting times in public hospitals.

CRISPR Gene-Editing Technology

  • Offers potential cure for SCD, but faces challenges:
    • High cost ($2-3 million) makes it out of reach for most patients in endemic countries.
    • Requires advanced care in well-resourced hospitals, further limiting access.

CRISPR in India

  • Ethical and legal concerns regarding its use:
    • National Guidelines for Stem Cell Research (2017) prohibits commercialization of stem cell therapies.
    • Gene editing allowed only for in-vitro studies.
  • Government initiatives:
    • Five-year project to develop CRISPR for SCD.
    • Council of Scientific and Industrial Research is developing gene-editing therapies.

Way Forward

  • Comprehensive approach needed to address multiple issues:
    • Improved access to diagnostics, essential drugs, health information, and community support.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *