CAA and its Issues

CAA grants citizenship to:

  • 6 minorities (Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, Christian) facing religious persecution in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh.
  • Those who entered India before Dec 31, 2014.

CAA Provisions

  • Grants citizenship to six minorities fleeing religious persecution from Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh.
  • Eligibility: Entered India on or before December 31, 2014.
  • Amends Citizenship Act of 1955, relaxing residence requirement for naturalization from eleven to five years.
  • Exempts specified communities from criminal cases and deportation.
  • Exceptions: Inner Line Permit states and areas under Sixth Schedule of Constitution.

Arguments in Favor of CAA

  • Dignified life for refugees, removing legal barriers to citizenship.
  • Protection of cultural, linguistic, and social identity.
  • Relief to victims of partition facing religious persecutions.

Arguments Against CAA

  • Violates right to equality under Article 14.
  • Violates secularism, making religion a ground for eligibility.
  • Seen as discriminatory towards Muslims, especially in context of NRC.
  • Excludes other persecuted minority groups like Tamil Hindus and Rohingya.

Way Forward

  • Address fears of nationwide NRC among Muslim community.
  • Assuage concerns of North-eastern states like Assam regarding cultural and ethnic identity.


Judges & Bureaucrats in Politics

Context: Recent resignations for political pursuits raise questions about propriety.

Checks & Balances:

  • Constitution separates powers (legislature, executive, judiciary).
  • Independent bodies (Election Commission, Public Service Commission, CAG) ensure fairness.
  • Fixed tenure, financial independence, removal procedures protect these institutions.

Current Restrictions:

  • Judges face post-retirement limitations on practicing law.
  • CAG & Public Service Commission can’t take government jobs after retirement.
  • No restrictions on joining political parties or contesting elections.

Cooling-Off Period Debate:

  • Election Commission recommended a cooling-off period for bureaucrats.
  • Rejected by government citing potential conflict with Constitution and democratic values.
  • Supreme Court left decision to the legislature.

Proposed Way Forward:

  • Apply “justice must be seen to be done” principle even after leaving office.
  • Implement a cooling-off period (e.g., 2 years) for joining politics or political appointments.
  • This fosters public trust and reduces suspicion of quid pro quo.


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