Unit-3 : BUILDING HUMAN RESOURCES

Short Notes or Revision Notes 

GIST of India Year Book 2024

Health Issues in India

  • Malnutrition: Deficiencies, excesses, or imbalances in a person’s nutrient intake.
    • Undernutrition:Manifests in four forms:
      • Wasting:Low weight-for-height.
      • Stunting:Low height-for-age.
      • Underweight:Low weight-for-age (may be stunted, wasted, or both).
      • Micronutrient deficiencies:Lack of essential vitamins and minerals.
    • Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs): Long-term health conditions like cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and chronic lung illnesses.

Other Health-related Terms

  • Digital Stack:A framework of digital technologies supporting health initiatives.
  • Interest Subvention:Financial incentive to reduce loan interest rates.
  • E-Health:Use of electronic media to access health information and services.

 

Chapter-13  : Health and Family Welfare

Mission Indradhanush: Boosting India’s Immunization Coverage

Launched in 2014, Mission Indradhanush (MI) aims to achieve 90% full immunization coverage for children and pregnant women. It targets unvaccinated and partially vaccinated individuals in low-coverage and hard-to-reach areas.

Key Achievements:

  • 11 Phases Completed:Over 4.45 crore children and 1.12 crore pregnant women vaccinated across 701 districts.
  • COVID-19 Response:IMI 3.0 and 4.0 focused on rapid vaccination during the pandemic.
  • Nationwide Focus (IMI 5.0):Aims to eliminate measles and rubella by September 2023. Vaccinated:
    • 06 crore children
    • 25 crore pregnant women (as of September 2023)

New Vaccines Introduced

  • Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV):Introduced in 2015 and expanded nationwide by 2016 (aligns with World Polio End Game strategy).
  • Rotavirus Vaccine (RVV):Launched in 2016 to reduce Rotavirus diarrhea.
  • Measles-Rubella (MR) Vaccine:Targets 41 crore children aged 9 months to 15 years, followed by routine immunization doses.
  • Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Vaccine:Introduced for children in 2006, expanded to adults in high-burden districts (2015).
  • Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV):Launched in 2017 to reduce child pneumonia deaths.
  • Tetanus and Adult Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine:Replaced TT vaccine for pregnant women and booster doses (recommended in 2016 due to shifting trends in diphtheria cases).

Maternal and Child Health Initiatives in India

Mother’s Absolute Affection (MAA) Programme:

  • Intensified program promoting breastfeeding and infant/young child feeding practices.
  • Revitalizes efforts to enhance breastfeeding rates through health systems.
  • Key components:
    • Awareness generation
    • Breastfeeding promotion and counseling
    • Skilled support at delivery points
    • Monitoring and recognition

Anemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) Strategy (2018):

  • Launched under POSHAN Abhiyan to reduce anemia prevalence by 3% annually.
  • Utilizes a 6x6x6 approach for treatment and reduction in various age groups:
    • 6 age groups: preschool children, children, adolescent girls/boys, pregnant/lactating women, women of reproductive age
    • 6 institutional mechanisms:
      • Interministerial coordination
      • National Anemia Mukt Bharat Unit
      • National Center of Excellence for Anemia Control
      • Convergence with other ministries
      • Supply chain strengthening
      • Anemia Mukt Bharat dashboard and digital portal
    • 6 actions:
      • Not explicitly mentioned in the text

PM-Ayushman Bharat Health Infrastructure Mission (PM-ABHIM) (2021):

  • Largest pan-India scheme since 2005 to strengthen healthcare infrastructure.
  • Aims to:
    • Effectively manage public health emergencies
    • Address critical gaps in health infrastructure, surveillance, and health research
    • Cover both urban and rural areas

Key Components:

  1. Ayushman Bharat Health and Wellness Centres (AB-HWCs):
    • Upgraded Sub Health Centres (SHCs) and Primary Health Centres (PHCs).
    • Goal: Create 150,000 AB-HWCs to bring healthcare closer to communities.
    • Over 1.61 lakh functional AB-HWCs by August 2023 (including AYUSH HWCs).
    • Services provided:
      • Comprehensive Primary Health Care (CPHC)
      • Expanded Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) services
      • Communicable disease services
      • Non-communicable disease services (hypertension, diabetes, etc.)
      • Mental health services
      • Additional services: ENT, ophthalmology, oral health, geriatric care, palliative care, trauma care
      • Health promotion and wellness activities (yoga, etc.)
  1. School Health Programme: Revised to promote healthy lifestyles.
  2. Health and Wellness Ambassadors Initiative: Promotes healthy lifestyles among students (joint initiative by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Department of School Education and Literacy).

Combating Tuberculosis in India

National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme (NTEP):

  • Aims for a rapid decline in tuberculosis burden by 2025.
  • Provides free diagnostics, quality drugs, and financial assistance to patients.
  • Network of microscopy centers, rapid molecular testing labs, and DR-TB centers for diagnosis and treatment.

TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan (TMBA):

  • Raises awareness, addresses stigma, and promotes free TB services.

National Nursing and Midwifery Commission Act, 2023 (NNMC Act)

  • Replaces the Indian Nursing Council to improve nursing standards.
  • Establishes National and State Commissions with independent boards.
  • Standardizes admission processes, promotes skill development, and encourages innovation.
  • Fosters collaboration with industry and international participation.

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR):

  • Combats communicable diseases through research initiatives.
  • Examples: Malaria Elimination Research Alliance India (MERA), India TB Research Consortium (ITRC).
  • Conducts national TB prevalence surveys.
  • Develops cost-effective diagnostics (TruNAT) and universal TB treatment options.

Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP)

Launched in 2008, PMBJP aims to provide quality generic medicines at affordable prices.

  • Revamped in 2015 (PMJAY), renamed again in 2016 (PMBJP).
  • Growth:80 stores in 2014 to over 10,000 Kendras by November 2023.

Key Features:

  • Dedicated Janaushadhi Kendras:Offer generic medicines at significantly lower prices (50%-90% less than branded).
  • Implementing Agency:Pharmaceuticals & Medical Devices Bureau of India (PMBI) (established 2008).
  • Objectives:
    • Ensure access to quality medicines for all.
    • Raise awareness about generic medicines.
    • Generate employment through entrepreneurship opportunities.
  • Open to all:Operated by government agencies and private entrepreneurs.
  • Special incentives:Available for Kendras in disadvantaged areas.
  • Quality Assurance:Medicines procured only from WHO-GMP certified suppliers.

India’s e-Health Initiatives

  • National Digital Health Blueprint (NDHB): Framework for a digital health ecosystem.
    • Key features: Unique Health ID, privacy protection, national portability, Electronic Health Records (EHRs).
  • National Digital Health Mission (NDHM) (Launched Aug 15, 2020): Implements the NDHB.
  • eSanjeevani Telemedicine Platform:
    • Doctor-to-Doctor (eSanjeevani):Enables consultations between doctors.
    • Patient-to-Doctor (eSanjeevani OPD):Enables teleconsultations between patients and doctors.
  • Integration with AB-HWCs: eSanjeevani is a key component of Ayushman Bharat health centers.

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