Economic and Government Schemes in India

  • Gross Value Added (GVA): Measures the value of goods and services produced by a sector of the economy.
  • Millet: A group of small-seeded grains cultivated in dry areas.
  • Central Sector Schemes: Implemented and funded entirely by the central government.
  • Fair Price Shops (PDS): Sell subsidized food grains to low-income earners.
  • Public Distribution System (PDS): A network of shops that distribute essential commodities at affordable prices.

Chapter-16 : Agriculture

Indian Agriculture Sector: An Overview

  • Growth: Moderate growth (3% in 2021-22) compared to the historical average (4.6% in the last six years).
  • Investment:
    • Private investment increasing (9.3% in 2020-21).
    • Public investment stagnant (4.3% in 2020-21).
  • Exports: Reached an all-time high of US$50.2 billion in 2021-22.
  • Employment: Provides livelihood to over 151 million people (around 60% of the population).
  • Contribution to GDP:
    • About 18% (gradually decreasing with economic diversification).
    • Agriculture and allied sectors contribute over 24% to GVA.

Per Drop More Crop (PDMC) Scheme (2015-present)

  • Goal:Increase water-use efficiency through micro-irrigation (drip & sprinkler systems).
  • Benefits:
    • Water savings
    • Reduced fertilizer usage
    • Lower labor expenses
    • Increased farmer income
  • Financial Assistance:
    • 55% for small & marginal farmers
    • 45% for other farmers
  • Coverage:47 lakh hectares covered by 2022-23 (81% increase since 2015-16).

International Year of Millets (IYM) 2023

  • FAO declared 2023 as the International Year of Millets.
  • Government of India actively promoted millet cultivation and consumption.
  • Why Millets?
    • Nutritional Benefits:Richer in minerals, vitamins, fiber, and certain amino acids compared to rice and wheat (e.g., Bajra for iron, zinc, and protein).
    • Climate-Smart Crop:
      • Drought-resistant
      • Short growing season (70-100 days)
      • Lower water requirement (350-500 mm)
      • Thrives in poor soils and hilly areas

Additional Notes:

  • Millets were among the first domesticated crops in India (evidence from Indus Valley civilization).
  • Grown in over 130 countries, millets are a traditional food for more than half a billion people in Asia and Africa.

Dairy Processing & Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF)

  • Launched: 2017-18 (revised to 2018-19)
  • Target: State federations, district unions, milk producer companies, and NDDB subsidiaries (Eligible End Borrowers)
  • Goal: Modernize milk processing plants and create infrastructure for increased milk processing
  • Extension: Funding period extended to 2022-23, loan repayment until 2030-31

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