Chapter-21 : Transport

Short Notes or Revision Notes 

GIST of India Year Book 2024

Indian Transportation Infrastructure

Indian Railways:

  • Established over 170 years ago.
  • Vast network: 68,043 km, 7,308 stations.
  • Electrification: 90% of broad gauge network (as of March 2023).
  • R&D wing: Research Design and Standards Organisation (RDSO).
  • Catering services: Governed by Catering Policy 2017 (base kitchens/e-catering).
  • Vande Bharat Express: India’s first indigenous semi-high-speed train (160 km/h).

Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH):

  • Oversees road infrastructure development (national highways, research).
  • Associated organizations: NHAI (National Highways Authority of India), NHIDCL (National Highways Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited).

Highway Development Projects:

  • Bharatmala Pariyojana: Upgrading and expanding national highways for better connectivity and logistics.
    • Focus on expressways and multi-modal logistic parks.
    • Prioritizes North East region connectivity (Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal).
  • Parvatmala Pariyojana: Ropeway development for last-mile connectivity and tourism (including urban areas).
  • Land acquisition: Streamlined through Bhoomi Rashi portal for transparency.

Integrated Planning:

  • PM Gati Shakti National Master Plan: Facilitates coordinated infrastructure development across ministries.

Highway Operations:

  • Managed by NHAI:
    • Wayside amenities every 40-50 km.
    • Toll collection.
    • Incident management support.

New Technologies:

  • NH projects incorporate new materials and technologies:
    • Recycled asphalt.
    • Waste plastic.
    • Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC).

User-Centric Initiatives:

  • Online services.
  • Common national registers.
  • Simplified processes (contactless services, dealer point registration).

Traffic Management:

  • Intelligent Traffic Management Systems.
  • E-tolling for efficient traffic flow and toll collection (over 7.7 crore FASTags issued).

Vehicle Modernization:

  • Vehicle Scrapping Policy: Phases out unfit and polluting vehicles.

Maritime Transport:

  • Sagarmala Programme: Port-led development to reduce logistics costs and improve export competitiveness.

Coastal Shipping:

  • Promoted for carbon efficiency.
  • Aims to shift cargo from land to coastal and inland waterways.
  • Ro-Pax ferries enhance coastal connectivity and sustainability.

Shipping Industry:

  • Integral part of global trade and India’s Exim trade.
  • Maritime India Vision 2030: Blueprint for coordinated growth in the maritime sector (over 150 initiatives).

Ship Building:

  • Focus on defense and coastal vessels.
  • Aided by Shipbuilding Financial Assistance Policy.

Ship Repair:

  • India’s strategic location attracts ships for repair (Cochin Shipyard Ltd. – major player).

Ship Recycling:

  • Alang-Sosiya in Gujarat: World’s largest ship recycling yard (employment, steel recycling).

Major Ports:

  • 12 major ports and over 200 non-major ports.
  • Handle 55% of total traffic (vital for economic development).

Inland Waterways & Maritime Transport

  • Inland Water Transport (IWT):
    • Fuel-efficient and eco-friendly mode of transport.
    • Promoted by National Waterways Act and Jal Marg Vikas Project.
  • Cruise Shipping:
    • Potential for growth in tourism, foreign exchange earnings, and onshore income.
  • Indian Maritime University (IMU):
    • Central University for maritime education and research.

Air Transport & Civil Aviation

Government Bodies:

  • Ministry of Civil Aviation:Oversees policies and regulations.
  • Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA):Ensures safety oversight and regulation.
  • Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS):Regulates civil aviation security.
  • Airports Authority of India (AAI):Manages airports and airspace.
  • Aircraft Accidents Investigation Bureau (AAIB):Investigates aircraft accidents.
  • Commission of Railway Safety (CRS):Deals with railway safety.
  • Airports Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA):Regulates airport tariffs.
  • Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Uran Akademi (IGRUA):Promotes aeronautical training.
  • Rajiv Gandhi National Aviation University (RGNAU):India’s first aviation university.

Policies & Initiatives:

  • Integrated Civil Aviation Policy:Outlines policy framework for the sector.
  • Regional Connectivity Scheme (RCS)-UDAN:Improves regional air connectivity.
  • Air Sewa Initiative:Provides a hassle-free air travel experience.
  • Disinvestment of Air India:Completed in January 2022 (Air India, Air India Express, and 50% of AISATS).
  • Greenfield Airports Policy:Aims to develop new airports (12 operational).
  • National Air Sports Guidelines 2023:Promotes air sports activities in India.
  • Krishi Udan 2.0:Incentivizes air cargo transport for agricultural produce (covers 58 airports).
  • Biometric Enabled Seamless Travel (DigiYatra):Uses facial recognition for a smooth airport experience (operational at 13 airports).
  • Flexible Use of Airspace:Optimizes airspace utilization (129 Conditional Routes established).
  • Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan:Promotes accessibility for people with disabilities in air travel.

Other Initiatives:

  • Drone usage across sectors:Aims to make India a global drone hub by 2030.
  • Aircraft Leasing:Over 70% of Indian carriers’ fleet is leased.
  • Maintenance Repair & Overhaul (MRO):New guidelines to promote the MRO industry.
  • GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN):Improves precision approaches.

International Cooperation:

  • Air Services Agreements:India has agreements with 116 countries (as of Oct 2023).
  • Open sky arrangements:India has arrangements with 24 countries (as of Oct 2023).

Long-Term Goals

  • Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA):Aims to reduce emissions from international aviation (India’s concerns highlighted).
  • Long Term Aspirational Goals (LTAG) of ICAO:Aims for net-zero carbon emissions by 2050 (India advocates for flexible implementation).

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