Short Notes or Revision Notes 

GIST of India Year Book 2024

Cultural Heritage

  • Tangible:Physical artifacts passed down through generations (buildings, monuments, objects).
  • Intangible:Practices, knowledge, skills, and expressions considered cultural heritage (folklore, music, traditional methods).

Science & Technology

  • Nanotechnology:Engineering and science of extremely small devices and structures.
  • Coronal Mass Ejection (CME):Large expulsion of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun’s corona.
  • Quantum:Discrete unit of energy proportional to the frequency of radiation.
  • Soft landing:Successful spacecraft landing without damage.
  • Hard landing:Spacecraft landing with damage, potentially mission-ending.

Indian Space Program

  • Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV):ISRO’s vehicle for launching satellites into geosynchronous orbits (higher payload capacity than PSLV).


  • Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV):ISRO’s indigenous medium-lift launcher for various orbits (geosynchronous transfer, polar sun synchronous, etc.).


Chapter-27: Culture and Tourism

Ministry of Culture in India


  • Safeguards ancient cultural heritage.
  • Promotes artistic expression, traditional crafts, music, dance, and literature.
  • Oversees cultural organizations and programs.

Mission Initiatives:

  • National Mission for Manuscripts:Preserves and digitizes ancient manuscripts.
  • National Mission for Monuments and Antiquities:Conserves historical structures and artifacts.
  • National Mission on Libraries:Enhances library infrastructure and access to knowledge.
  • Gandhi Heritage Sites Mission:Honors Mahatma Gandhi’s legacy by preserving related sites.

Types of Cultural Heritage:

  • Tangible:Monuments, sculptures, paintings, and physical artifacts.
  • Intangible:Oral traditions, performing arts, rituals, and folklore.
  • Knowledge:Ancient texts, scientific knowledge, and philosophical wisdom.

Focus Areas:

  • Gandhian Heritage:Emphasizes Mahatma Gandhi’s impact on Indian culture and society.
  • Custodian of Major Libraries:Cares for libraries with invaluable collections.
  • Promotion of Buddhist and Tibetan Culture:Supports institutes in Sarnath, Varanasi, and Leh.
  • UNESCO and Cultural Exchange:Implements UNESCO cultural conventions and enters into cultural exchange agreements.

Achievements in Cultural Diplomacy

  • UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee:Secured a seat (2022-2026) for safeguarding intangible cultural heritage.
  • Garba of Gujarat:Nominated for UNESCO’s Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage.
  • Creative Cities Network:Gwalior (music) and Kozhikode (literature) nominated to join.

Initiatives by India

  • Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav (AKAM):Celebrates 75 years of independence.

Programs under AKAM:

  • Dhara Series:Conferences on India’s knowledge heritage.
  • Qila Aur Kahaniya Campaign:Highlights the significance of forts in India’s history.
  • Vitasta:Celebrates the narratives of the Jhelum river across multiple cities.
  • Vibrant Villages Program:Provides firsthand experiences of life at the border.
  • Significance of Caves:Conservation and restoration of ancient caves.
  • Wonder Caves Campaign:Connects people with their historical roots.
  • Kalanjali: Celebrating Art:Weekend program showcasing diverse cultural programs.
  • Bharat Parv:Celebrates India’s diverse culture (organized by Ministry of Tourism).
  • Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat (EBSB): Promotes cultural exchange.

EBSB Programs:

  • Madhavpur Mela (Gujarat):Celebrates connection between North East and Gujarat.
  • Kashi Tamil Sangamam & Saurashtra Tamil Sangamam:Foster cultural exchange.
  • Vitasta: The Ever-Flowing Legacy of Kashmir:Celebrates the Jhelum river’s narratives.
  • Events in Chennai, Pune, and Srinagar:Showcase Kashmiri culture, cuisine, and art forms.

Vibrant Villages Program:

  • Offers firsthand experiences of life at the border (organized by Ministry of Culture).
  • Includes Border Village festivals, quizzes, travel with youth groups, and local cultural activities.
  • Organized trips in Ladakh, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, and more.

Institutions Supporting Art & Culture in India

Lalit Kala Akademi (National Academy of Fine Arts)

  • Apex body for visual arts in India.
  • Promotes and showcases contemporary and modern Indian art.
  • Presents exhibitions, educational programs, and maintains a:
    • Library
    • Art collection
    • Archives
    • Conservation laboratory
  • Provides studios to artists in various disciplines (sculpture, graphics, ceramics, paintings).
    • Example: Garhi Artists’ Studios in Delhi.

Sangeet Natak Akademi (National Academy of Music, Dance & Drama)

  • Maintains archives of audio/video recordings, photographs, and a reference library.
  • Establishes and oversees institutions of national importance in performing arts.
    • Examples: Jawaharlal Nehru Manipur Dance Academy, National School of Drama, Kathak Kendra.
  • Fosters cultural exchanges nationally and internationally.

National School of Drama (NSD):

  • Provides training in various aspects of theatre.
  • Offers diverse drama curriculum.
  • Explores creative avenues in young audiences.
  • Conducts workshops across India, Nepal, Sikkim, Ladakh, and Bhutan.

Kalakshetra Foundation:

  • Offers a serene environment for students to study arts.
  • Known for its refined aesthetics and technique.
  • Participated in various Festivals of India abroad.

Sahitya Akademi (National Academy of Letters)

  • Promotes literature across 24 Indian languages.
  • Published over 7,000 books in 24 languages (original works and translations).

Awards and Recognition:

  • Sahitya Akademi Award:Most prestigious literary award in India for outstanding books.
  • Bhasha Samman:Recognizes contributions to languages not officially recognized by the Akademi (literature, research, translation).
  • Translation Prize:Acknowledges exceptional translations across 24 languages.
  • Bal Sahitya Puraskar:Honors outstanding contributions to children’s literature.

Institutions Supporting Art & Culture in India

National Institutions:

  • Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA):
    • Promotes understanding of arts & culture within broader social & environmental contexts.
    • Rich collection across disciplines including archaeology, anthropology, and crafts.
    • Offers postgraduate and certificate courses in various arts fields.
  • Centre for Cultural Resources and Training (CCRT):
    • Revitalizes education by fostering awareness of regional Indian cultures.
    • Conducts training programs for educators on Indian art and culture.
    • Implements Cultural Talent Search Scholarship Scheme for outstanding children (10-14 years) in various art forms.
  • Zonal Cultural Centres (ZCCs) (7 branches):
    • Promote, preserve, and disseminate cultural awareness across India.
    • Facilitate exchange of artists, scholars, and performers between regions (National Cultural Exchange Programme).
  • Archaeological Survey of India (ASI):
    • Premier organization for archaeological research and heritage protection.
    • Regulates archaeological activities and research in India.
    • Maintains ancient monuments and archaeological sites.
  • Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR):
    • Shapes policies and programs related to India’s external cultural relations.
    • Strengthens cultural ties and fosters understanding between India and other nations.
  • National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities:
    • Creates a National Database on Built Heritage and Sites for better management.
  • National Mission for Manuscripts:
    • Works on documentation, conservation, digitization, and dissemination of manuscripts.
  • Indian Museum:
    • India’s oldest and largest museum.
    • Focuses on collecting, conserving, researching, and exhibiting artistic collections.
    • Employs visitor-driven and community-oriented approaches.
  • National Council of Science Museums (NCSM):
    • Premier institution for science communication.
    • Engages in science communication through exhibitions and educational programs.
    • Aims to popularize science, inculcate scientific temper, and promote a culture of science.

Other Relevant Institutions

  • Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture (RMIC): Promotes the message of Vedanta.
  • Ministry of Tourism: Develops and promotes tourism in India.
  • Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management (IITTM): Provides specialized training for the tourism and travel industry.
  • Indian Culinary Institute (ICI): Offers programs in culinary arts, documentation, and preservation of Indian cuisine.
  • Incredible India Website: Provides information about India as a tourist destination.
  • Dekho Apna Desh Initiative: Aims to create awareness about India’s rich heritage and encourage domestic travel.
  • Swadesh Darshan Scheme: Provides financial assistance to develop tourism infrastructure in India.

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