Short Notes or Revision Notes 

GIST of India Year Book 2024

Indian Culture in Brief

  • Kuchipudi:
    • Classical dance form originating from Andhra Pradesh, named after Kuchelapuram village.
    • Combines Nritta (pure dance), Nritya (expressional dance), and Natya (drama).
  • Vihara:
    • Sanskrit word for a rest house, temple, or monastery, especially Buddhist.
  • Basaveshwara:
    • 12th-century Indian statesman, philosopher, poet, and social reformer in Karnataka.
    • Lingayat saint in the Shiva-focused Bhakti movement.
  • Ikat:
    • Fabric dyeing technique using resist dyeing on yarns before weaving.
    • Ikat fabric is from Indonesia, but Odisha has its own variation called Bandhakala.
  • Indo-Malayan Region:
    • One of eight major biogeographical realms, encompassing India, Southeast Asia, and parts of Indonesia.
    • Includes three mega-diverse countries and four of the world’s 25 biodiversity hotspots.


  • North Eastern Frontier Agency (NEFA):Former British Indian political division, now Arunachal Pradesh (India).
  • Pragjyotisha:Mythological Hindu kingdom associated with the historical Kamarupa kingdom.


Chapter-30 : States and Union territory

State-wise Important Information

Andhra Pradesh:

  • Location: Southeastern coast of India
  • Size: 8th largest state, 2nd longest coastline (974 km)
  • Nickname: Ratna Garbha (due to variety of rocks and minerals)
  • Major rivers: Godavari, Krishna, Pennar, Nagavali, Vamsadhara
  • Art form: Kuchipudi (created by Siddhendra Yogi around 15th century)

Arunachal Pradesh:

  • Statehood: February 20, 1987 (formerly North-East Frontier Agency)
  • Historical mentions: Kalika Purana, Mahabharata
  • Forest cover: 80.99% (biodiversity hotspot)
  • Wildlife: Tigers, elephants, great Indian hornbill
  • Festivals: Mopin, Solung, Losar


  • Location: Northeast India, gateway to northeastern states
  • Nickname: Land of Red River and Blue Hills
  • History:
    • Ancient name: Pragjyotisha or Kamrupa
    • Ahom dynasty rule (1228 AD onwards)
    • British annexation (1826)
  • Geography:
    • Brahmaputra River Valley
    • Barak or Surma Valley
    • Karbi and North Cachar Hills
  • Agriculture: Rice, maize, tea, oilseeds
  • Forest cover: 37.33%
  • Wildlife sanctuaries: Kaziranga and Manas National Parks
  • Tourism: Kaziranga and Manas National Parks, Bihu festival


  • Name origin: Vihara (cultural significance as abode of Buddha and Jain Tirthankars)
  • Historical significance: Birthplace of India’s first empire and major religions
  • Rulers: Mauryas, Sungas, Guptas, Kushans
  • Location: Borders Nepal, West Bengal, UP, and Jharkhand
  • Rivers: Ganga, Sone, Kosi
  • Agriculture: Paddy, wheat, maize, sugarcane (cultivated over 55.54 lakh hectares)
  • Forest cover: 6.65%
  • Electrification: Achieved in 2018
  • Tourist attractions: Patna, Bodh Gaya, Gaya, Rajgir, Sitamarhi, Barabar Caves, Kesaria Stupa, Dev Sun Temple, Jain temples, Buddhist stupas


  • Formed in 2000 from Madhya Pradesh
  • Historical roots: Ramayana and Mahabharata references (Dakshin-Kausal, Dandakaranya)
  • Rulers (6th-12th centuries): Sarabhpurias, Panduavanshis, Somvanshis, Kalchuris, Nagvanshis
  • Location: Bordered by Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh
  • Nickname: Rice Bowl of central India (80% of arable land cultivates paddy)
  • Forest cover: Third-largest in India (over 44%)
  • Handicrafts, textiles, and MSMEs promotion: e-marketing portal ‘e-manak’
  • Tourism: Ram Van Gaman Tourism Circuit Project (75 identified sites)


  • Rich historical heritage: Satavahanas, Kadambas, Chalukyas, Portuguese
  • Liberation from Portuguese rule: 1961
  • Statehood: 1987 (previously a union territory with Daman and Diu)
  • Location: Western coast, bordered by Maharashtra and Karnataka
  • Literacy rate: 88.70% (2011 Census)
  • Tourist attractions: Beaches, churches, temples, forts, waterfalls, wildlife sanctuaries
  • Major port: Mormugao
  • Digital mental health service: Tele-Manas


  • History: 2000 BC onwards (Mauryas, Guptas, Chalukyas)
  • Challenges: Muslim, Maratha, and British rule
  • Reorganization: Bombay state, then separate state
  • Linguistic diversity: Charotari, Kathiyawadi, North Gujarati, Surati, Kutchhi
  • Fairs: Madhavrai fair (Madhavpur), Ambaji fair (Banaskantha district)
  • Agriculture: Cotton, groundnut, rice, wheat, vegetables (leader in cotton and groundnut)
  • Horticulture: Fruits, vegetables, spices
  • Food processing and dehydration industries
  • Water management: Sardar Sarovar Yojana, SAUNI Yojana (irrigation and groundwater recharge)
  • Renewable energy: Wind and solar power initiatives
  • Industry: Significant contribution to national GDP and exports


  • Rich cultural and historical legacy: Early human settlements, Indus Valley Civilization
  • Strategic location: Borders several states, surrounds Delhi
  • Gateway to North India, historically a crucial battleground
  • Agriculture: Key contributor to India’s food security
  • Crop diversification, productivity enhancement schemes
  • Extensive canal network and drainage system for irrigation
  • Micro-irrigation subsidies for water management
  • Early rural electrification, focus on renewable energy (solar)
  • Emerging education destination with quality institutes
  • Progressive industrial policies promoting investment
  • Focus on rural industrial growth, women’s empowerment, MSME development
  • High ranking in merchandise exports
  • Infrastructure development to support industrial growth

Himachal Pradesh:

  • Name: Derived from Himalayas (“land of snowy mountains”)
  • Three geographic zones: Outer Himalayas (Shivaliks), Inner Himalayas (Mid-Mountains), Greater Himalayas (Alpine Zone)
  • Formed on April 15, 1948, from the integration of princely states
  • Three distinct topographical regions:
    • Shiwaliks Hills
    • Mountains (Lesser Himalayas, Greater Himalayas, Trans Himalayas)
    • Valleys (Shiwalik Dun, fluvial and glacio-fluvial)
  • Diverse climatic conditions
  • Organic farming initiative: ‘Prakritik Kheti Khushal Kisan Yojna’
  • Wild animal protection scheme: ‘Mukhya Mantrj Khet Sanrakshan Yojana’ (solar fencing subsidy)
  • Five rivers: Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, Yamuna
  • Nine forest types: Dry alpine, moist alpine scrub, subalpine, Himalayan temperate, wet temperate, subtropical pine, subtropical broad-leaved hill, tropical dry deciduous, tropical thorny
  • Sole holder of India’s rock salt resources
  • Other minerals: Barytes, limestone, shale
  • Known as ‘Fruit Bowl’ of the country
  • Handicrafts and handlooms: Kangra painting, Chamba Rumal, Kangra tea, spices, oils, caps, shawls


  • Formed in November 2000
  • Historical significance: Raja Jai Singh Deo (13th century)
  • Location: Bordered by West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Odisha
  • Forests: Tropical moist deciduous, tropical dry deciduous, subtropical broadleaved hill forests (Sal tree species)
  • Wildlife sanctuaries: 10, National Parks: 1


  • Rich history (2,000+ years): Kadambas, Gangas dynasties, Raja Ravi Varma, Basaveshwara, Vijnaneshwara
  • Vijayanagar empire (1336-1646): Patronage of arts, religion, literature
  • British rule, Portuguese influence (new crops)
  • Formation of Mysore state (1953), renamed Karnataka (1973)
  • Forest cover: 20.15% (managed by forest department)
  • Wildlife sanctuaries: 30, National Parks: 5
  • Agriculture: 66% rural population, 55.60% agricultural workers
  • Irrigation: 28% of cultivable area
  • Tourist attractions: Mysuru Palace, Nagarhole National Park, Belur, Srirangapatna


  • History: Chieftaincies, foreign interventions (Portuguese, Dutch, English)
  • Formation: November 1, 1956 (unification of provinces)
  • Location: Southern tip of India
  • Nickname: “God’s Own Country”
  • First in India for:
    • 100% household electrification
    • Literacy rate (93.91%)
    • Female literacy rate (92%)
  • Kerala Fibre Optic Network (KFON) project for internet access as a basic right

Madhya Pradesh:

  • Second largest Indian state in size
  • Historical significance:
    • King Ashoka’s rule over Ujjain
    • Women rulers: Ahilyabai Holkar, Rani Kamalapati, Rani Durgawati
  • Formation: November 1956 (reorganized in 2000)
  • Location:
    • North: Uttar Pradesh
    • East: Chhattisgarh
    • South: Maharashtra
    • West: Gujarat, Rajasthan
  • Tribal rights: PESA Act implemented
  • Festivals: Narmada Festival (Jabalpur), Shivpuri festival, Betwa festival


  • History:
    • Satavahanas (230 BC – 225 AD): Founders of Maharashtra
    • Vakatakas: Development in learning, arts, religion (Ajanta Caves)
    • Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Yadavas (Marathi as court language)
    • Shivaji, Maratha supremacy under Peshwas
  • Formation: Unification of Marathi-speaking areas (Mumbai renamed in 1995)
  • Geography:
    • Plateau with Sahyadri Range along the coast
    • Satpura ranges in the north, Ajanta and Satmala ranges in the center
  • Location:
    • West: Arabian Sea
    • North: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh
    • East: Chhattisgarh, Telangana
    • South: Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
  • Economy:
    • Over half of rural population relies on agriculture and allied activities
    • Third largest sugar producer in India


  • History: Dates back to 33 AD with King Nongda Lairen Pakhangba
  • Independence: Maintained until Burmese invasion
  • Statehood: 1972
  • Legislature: 60-member Legislative Assembly (19 reserved for Scheduled Tribes, 1 for Scheduled Castes)
  • Lok Sabha representation: 2 members
  • Rajya Sabha representation: 1 member
  • Location: North-eastern tip of India
  • Borders:
    • East: Myanmar
    • North: Nagaland
    • West: Assam
    • South: Myanmar, Mizoram
  • Industries: Handloom (largest cottage industry)
  • Wildlife: Home to brow-antlered deer (sangai)
  • Festivals: Lai Haraoba, Rasa Leela, Cheiraoba, Ningol Chak-Kouba, Rath Jatra, etc.


  • Statehood: February 1987 (previously a union territory)
  • Forest cover: One of the largest in India (85.53%)
  • Vegetation: Tropical semi-evergreen, moist deciduous, subtropical broad-leaved hill, subtropical pine forests
  • Bamboo resources: Cover 57% of geographical area


  • History:
    • Antiquity: Kalinga, Utkal
    • Pivotal event: Ashoka’s invasion of Kalinga
    • Prosperous era: Mahameghavahana Kharavela’s reign
    • Architectural heritage: Sun Temple (Konark), Jagannath Temple (Puri)
    • Colonial influences: Muslim rule, Maratha occupation, British annexation
    • State formation: 1936
  • Governance: Focus on modern development and cultural preservation
  • Pilgrimage center: Puri (Jagannath Temple)
  • Tourist attractions:
    • Buddhist and Jain Monuments at Khandagiri
    • Diamond Triangle (Lalitgiri-Ratnagiri-Udayagiri)
    • Rock-cut caves of Khandagiri and Udayagiri
    • Emperor Kharavela’s inscriptions
  • Wildlife sanctuaries: 19
  • National parks: 2 (Similipal, Bhitarkanika)
  • Handloom: Ikat (Bandha Style) silk


  • History:
    • Pre-historic times, Indus Valley civilization influence
    • Prominent ruling clans: Chauhans, Guhilots
  • Formation: 1956 (State Reorganisation Act)
  • Location: Borders Pakistan to the west, surrounded by other Indian states
  • Agriculture: Wheat, barley, millet, cotton, vegetables, citrus fruits
  • Industry: Marble, cement, zinc, ceramics, handicrafts (second only to Jharkhand in mineral production)

Tamil Nadu:

  • History:
    • Rich historical background dating back to antiquity (Sangam classics)
    • Dynasties: Cholas, Cheras, Pandyas, Pallavas (Dravidian temple architecture)
    • European influence: Portuguese, Dutch, French, English (trading centers)
  • Location: Southern tip of India
  • Industry: Lignite, limestone, granite, and others


  • Name origin: Trilinga Desa (three ancient Shiva temples)
  • History:
    • Ruled by Sathavahanas, Kakatiyas, Chalukyas, Mughals, Qutubshahis, Asafjahis
    • Became 29th state of India in 2014 (Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Bill)
  • Location: Deccan plateau (surrounded by other Indian states)
  • Agriculture: Rice, tobacco, mango, cotton, sugarcane
  • Infrastructure: 100% household electrification, increased electricity generation capacity
  • Healthcare: Focus on Sustainable Development Goal 3 (Good Health and Well-Being), ‘End TB Strategy’

Uttar Pradesh:

  • Ancient history: Vedic Age (Brahmarshi Desha, Madhya Desha)
  • Vedic sages: Bhardwaja, Gautam, Yagyavalkaya, Vashishtha, Vishwamitra, Valmiki
  • 6th century BC: Jainism and Buddhism (Sarnath, Kushinagar)
  • Renowned centers of learning: Ayodhya, Prayag, Varanasi, Mathura
  • Medieval period: Muslim rule, cultural synthesis
  • Intellectuals: Ramananda, Kabir, Tulsidas, Surdas (Hindi and other languages)
  • British rule: United Provinces, renamed Uttar Pradesh (1950)
  • Location: Bordered by Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar
  • Regions: Southern Hills, Gangetic Plains

Andaman and Nicobar Islands:

  • Location: Between 6° and 14° latitude and 92° and 94° longitude
  • Subgroups: Andaman Group (north of 10°N), Nicobar Group (south of 10°N)
  • Climate: Humid and tropical coastal, monsoons (peak May-Dec)
  • Original inhabitants: Negrito tribes (Great Andamanese, Onge, Jarawa, Sentinalese), Mongoloid tribes (Nicobarese, Shompens)
  • Islands: 836 (only 38 permanently inhabited)
  • Agriculture: Plantation agriculture in Nicobar, newer in Andaman
  • Wildlife: Unique and varied animal life (land and sea)

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu:

Dadra and Nagar Haveli:

  • History: Koli chiefs, Maratha rule, Portuguese rule (until 1954)
  • Administration: Local body after liberation, merged with India (1961)


  • History: Acquired by Portuguese from Gujarat (1559), Portuguese rule (until 1961)
  • Location: Bordered by Gujarat, Arabian Sea, Kolak River, Kalai River


  • History: Portuguese-Gujarat treaty (1535), Portuguese rule (until 1961)
  • Location: Island connected by bridges, bordered by Gujarat (Junagarh district)
  • Merged with Dadra and Nagar Haveli (January 2020)

Jammu & Kashmir

  • Legendary origins: Kashmir Valley formed by draining an ancient lake (legend) or geological subsidence.
  • Historical timeline:
    • 3rd century BC: Buddhism introduced by Ashoka
    • 13th-14th centuries: Islam arrives
    • Various dynasties until 1586 (Akbar’s conquest)
    • Afghan rule, Dogra rule
  • Reorganisation: Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act (2019)
    • Divided the state into two union territories: J&K and Ladakh
    • Abolished state legislature
  • Dogra Dynasty in Jammu:
    • Ancient history traces back to Mahabharata times
    • Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession (1947)
  • Transition to Union Territories:
    • State legislature abolished
    • Replaced by Legislative Assembly of the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir
  • Geography and demographics:
    • Two regions: Kashmir and Jammu
    • 20 districts, 6,431 villages
    • 19th in population (2011 census)
  • Connectivity and significance: Strategically important region with diverse cultural and historical heritage


  • Location: Western Tibetan Plateau, surrounded by mountain ranges
  • Borders: Sinkiang, Tibet, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan
  • Cultural and historical significance:
    • Convergence point for Islamic and Buddhist cultures, Tibetan and Indic traditions
    • Crucial trade route between Central Asia and India
    • Independent kingdom for nearly 900 years
  • Founding of Ladakh Kingdom:
    • 950 CE by Prince Nyimagon of Central Tibet (capital: Shey)
  • Buddhist heritage:
    • Over 1,000 years of uninterrupted Buddhist history (introduced before Tibet)
    • Lotsava Rinchen Zangpo (11th century) key figure in establishing Buddhism
  • Preservation of Buddhist culture: Lamas and Ladakhi kings played a vital role.
  • Agricultural challenges: Cold desert, arid climate, reliance on snowmelt water.
    • Main crops: Barley, wheat, buckwheat, black peas.
  • Agricultural development initiatives: Mission Organic Development Initiative for Ladakh (LAHDC).


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *