Open Book Exams (OBE) in Indian Education System

Current Scenario in India

  • Millions of students rely on rote memorization for board exams.
  • National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 proposes various exam formats, including OBE.
  • CBSE conducting pilot study for OBE in grades 9-12 to assess its viability.

Why OBE over Traditional Exams?

  • Emphasis on 21st-century skills: Critical thinking, problem-solving over memorization.
  • Reduce focus on rote learning and coaching culture.
  • Encourage holistic development and broader knowledge application.
  • Assess core competencies instead of content memorization.

Significance of OBE

  • Requires creative question design and innovative classroom teaching methods.
  • Tests learner readiness, application of knowledge, and real-world problem-solving.
  • Promotes analysis, synthesis of information, and critical thinking.
  • Arguably more challenging than memorization-based exams.

Teacher Training and OBE Success

  • OBE success hinges on high-quality teaching.
  • Designing OBE requires flexibility and adapting to open-ended answers.
  • Teachers need training in student-centered learning and new pedagogies.
  • Transformation of teacher mindset and training from foundational years is crucial.
  • Teachers must be open to new ideas, data analysis, and technology integration.

The Way Forward

  • Education system needs to address issues of fairness, equity, and social mobility.
  • NEP offers a chance to create a value-based and equitable system.
  • Teachers can create innovative platforms for:
    • Competency-based learning
    • Value creation through digital transformation
    • Reflective classroom discussions


  • Effective assessment strategies are needed to monitor and guide students throughout their education.
  • Successful implementation of OBE requires significant changes in teaching methods and student evaluation.



EU’s Landmark Legislation on AI

A First-Mover in Regulating AI

  • European Parliament approves Artificial Intelligence Act, potentially taking effect by year-end.
  • This is the first comprehensive legal framework for governing rapidly developing AI technology.

Key Provisions of the EU AI Act

  • Risk-based approach:Classifies AI into four categories:
    • Prohibited: Violates human rights (e.g., social scoring, mass surveillance).
    • High-risk: Significant impact on lives (e.g., biometrics, law enforcement).
    • Limited-risk: User interaction (e.g., chatbots).
    • Minimal-risk: No or negligible risk (e.g., spam filters).
  • Strict requirements for high-risk AI:
    • Human oversight.
    • Security and conformity assessment.
  • Transparency for limited-risk AI:
    • Inform users of AI interaction.
    • Allow users to opt out.
  • Minimal-risk AI:
    • Exempt from regulation.
    • Must comply with existing laws.

Global Impact Expected

  • The EU AI Act, similar to GDPR (data privacy), is likely to influence global AI regulations.
  • However, concerns exist about potential stifling of innovation due to heavy regulations.

India’s Approach to Regulating AI

  • The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) is developing a framework for responsible AI.
  • Balancing risk mitigation and fostering innovation is crucial.
    • Recent withdrawal of mandatory permission for untested AI systems is a positive step.
  • NITI Aayog and TRAI have also issued recommendations on responsible AI development and leveraging AI in telecom.


  • India needs to learn from the EU’s approach while safeguarding citizen rights and promoting responsible AI development.


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