Indian Express Editorial Summary

Editorial Topic : India’s Performance in Global Gender Gap Index (2024) 

 GS-3 Mains Exam : Society

Revision Notes


Question : Compare India’s gender gap performance with its South Asian neighbors, particularly Bangladesh. What lessons can India learn from other countries in the region to improve its ranking on the Global Gender Gap Index?

Global Gender Gap Index

  • Introduced in 2006, measures gender gaps across four areas:
    • Economic Participation & Opportunity
    • Educational Attainment
    • Health & Survival
    • Political Empowerment
  • Index ranges from 0 (complete inequality) to 1 (complete parity).
  • Focuses on the relative position of women compared to men.

India’s Ranking

  • 129th out of 146 countries (2024) – 18th from the bottom.
  • Similar ranking in previous years (bottom 20).

Sub-Index Performance

  • Health and Education:
    • India has done well:
      • 95.1% gap closed in health.
      • 96.4% gap closed in education.
    • However, ranking is low due to faster progress in other countries:
      • 112th in education.
      • 142nd in health.
  • Economic Participation:
    • Lowest score (39.8%) among all sub-indices.
    • 142nd position globally.
    • Improvement from 2021 (32.6%) but lower than 2012 (46%).
    • Low scores in labor force participation, managerial positions, and wage parity.
    • Similar low economic parity in Bangladesh, Sudan, Iran, Pakistan, and Morocco.
  • Political Participation:
    • Only 25.1% gap closed.
    • Relatively high rank (65th) due to slow global progress in this area.
    • Decline from 2021 (51st, 27.6%) and 2014 (around 43.3%).

Key Takeaways

  • India’s overall ranking remains stagnant in gender equality.
  • Progress in health and education is promising, but economic and political participation lag.
  • Urgent action is needed to improve female labor force participation, leadership roles, and political representation.

India’s Gender Gap Performance Compared to Neighbors

  • South Asia ranks 7th globally (better than Middle East & North Africa), but still low on gender parity.
  • India ranks 5th within South Asia (129th globally). Bangladesh leads the region (99th globally).
  • India’s gender gaps have narrowed in some areas, but progress has slowed compared to a decade ago.

Economic Costs of Gender Inequality

  • Research shows significant economic costs of gender inequality.
  • OECD estimates gender discrimination costs the global economy up to $12 trillion.
  • Reducing this gap can increase GDP growth.


  • Economic equality requires treating women as independent decision-makers and including them at all levels.



Indian Express Editorial Summary

Editorial Topic : When the North Needs the South 

 GS-3 Mains Exam : Economy

Revision Notes


Question : Discuss the role of the Global South in driving future global economic growth. How has the landscape shifted in the past decade, and what challenges does the Global South face in sustaining this growth?

Shifting Global Landscape:

  • A decade ago, the Global South (developing countries) struggled with low growth and instability.
  • Today, they are projected to drive future global economic growth, with Asia leading the way.

Challenges to Growth in the South:

  • Low projected growth: 3% growth rate for the South is the lowest in decades.
  • Financial constraints: Limited access to deep financial markets hinders sustainable financing.
  • Disrupted tailwinds: Globalization, trade, and supply chains were disrupted by the pandemic.
  • Geopolitical headwinds: War, strategic competition, and fragmentation pose additional risks.

South’s Vulnerability:

  • Climate change, cost of living crisis, and unachieved development goals disproportionately impact the South.
  • Lack of liquidity financing and a broken debt architecture further hinder growth.

Global North’s Interest:

  • Supporting the South’s growth potential benefits the entire global economy.
  • The current international financial system is inadequate for this task and needs reform.

3 Key Areas for Sustainable Growth:

1.Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI):

  • Strong DPI is essential for economic growth and inclusion.
  • Global effort needed for best practices & data security.
  • Pandemic showcased DPI’s power in education, healthcare, etc.
  • Advancements in AI can further boost growth and inclusion.
  • Centralized structure is needed to maximize benefits and ensure security.

2.Climate Financing through Market Solutions:

  • 1% of publicly listed companies cause 40% of greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Proposed market solution has three elements:
    • Mandatory global disclosure of emissions data by large companies.
    • Digital platform to convert disclosed data into machine-readable format.
    • New rating agencies to assess corporate sustainability.
  • Improved data transparency empowers stakeholders for effective action.
  • Enables companies to develop long-term plans and investors to prioritize sustainability.

3.Strengthening Liquidity for the Global South:

  • International panels highlight limitations of the current financial system.
  • Existing system struggles to provide timely funding to emerging markets.
  • Reforms needed to improve access to liquidity:
    • Expand IMF’s liquidity facilities (swap lines, market borrowing, etc.).
  • Addressing these issues is critical for global financial stability.


  • Future global growth hinges on low- and middle-income countries.
  • The Global North must reform the international financial framework to support them.


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