Concerns Regarding the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) Rules in India

Question : What challenges do refugees face in obtaining the necessary documents required under the CAA rules, and how does this contribute to difficulties in their citizenship application process?


  • CAA Rules released on March 11 raise serious concerns.
  • Critics argue they create opaque procedures without legal safeguards for asylum seekers.

Key Points

  • CAA offers citizenship to non-Muslim migrants from 3 specific countries (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan) who entered India before Dec 31, 2014.
  • Critics argue CAA is discriminatory (based on religion) and may violate India’s constitution. Currently challenged in Supreme Court.

Difficulties for Applicants

  • CAA rules require applicants to provide documents proving nationality and pre-2014 entry.
  • Many refugees may not have or possess such documents due to persecution, loss, or lack of documentation systems in origin countries.

Global Trend of Onerous Requirements

  • Similar to India, countries like Australia and the UK place a high burden of proof on asylum seekers for documentation, leading to backlogs, delays, and vulnerable conditions.

Opaque Bureaucratic System

  • Multi-tiered system with Empowered Committees and District Level Committees lack clear guidelines or procedures for handling asylum claims.
  • The composition of these committees raises concerns about their suitability for such cases.

Uncertain Document Verification

  • Unclear process for verifying the authenticity and relevance of documents submitted by applicants, potentially leading to delays, exclusions, and lack of safeguards.

Unclear Assessment of “Eligibility Certificates”

  • Applicants must submit certificates from local institutions to prove religious and national identity. The assessment process for these certificates lacks transparency.

The Peril of Self-Declaration

  • CAA rules require applicants to declare themselves as “illegal migrants” to be eligible for citizenship, potentially exposing them to misuse of arbitrary state powers.

Missed Opportunity for Best Practices

  • The CAA rules fail to adopt best practices from other countries that accept wider evidence (including testimonies) to establish fear of persecution.
  • A well-functioning system would involve trained professionals, fair exercise of power, and mechanisms for appeals.



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