Indian Express Editorial Summary

Editorial Topic : Countering the Myth of Muslim Population Explosion in India

 GS-1 Mains Exam : Society

Revision Notes

Question : Critically analyze the myth of the Muslim population explosion in India. Use demographic data to support your argument.

The Myth

  • Propaganda claims Muslim population growth will overtake Hindu population in India.


  • Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in India has dropped significantly.
    • Latest National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) shows many states at replacement level fertility (2.0 children per woman).
    • Similar findings from Economic Survey 2018-19 and Sample Registration System (SRS) data.

Muslim Population Growth

  • Though initially higher, Muslim population growth rate is also declining.
    • 2011 Census showed higher growth rate for Muslims than Hindus.
    • However, the gap between the two rates narrowed significantly between 2001 and 2011.
    • Recent analysis suggests Muslim fertility decline may be faster than Hindu fertility.
      • Potential for “absolute convergence” in fertility rates by 2030.
    • Muslim fertility rate dropped from 4.4 (1992-93) to 2.4 (2020-21).
    • Pew Research study confirms overall decline in fertility rates across religions in India.

Reasons for Decline

  • Fertility rates influenced by education, healthcare, and socio-economic development, not religion.
    • States like Kerala and Tamil Nadu (better development) have lower TFRs than Bihar.

Combating Misinformation

  • NFHS-5 data shows higher maternal education leads to lower fertility rates.
  • Muslims in India face socio-economic disadvantages (education, health).
    • Sachar Committee Report (2006) highlighted this disparity.
  • Population growth debate should focus on:
    • Education
    • Economic development
    • Livelihoods
    • Food security
    • Nutrition
    • Healthcare
    • Sexual & reproductive health services
    • Gender justice

Impact on Women

  • Rhetoric around Muslim fertility undermines women’s right to choose.
  • Focus should shift to:
    • Sexual & reproductive health rights
    • Individual choice
    • Resisting co-optation for political agendas


  • Vilifying a community with misinformation is unacceptable.
  • Facts and data are crucial to counter this harmful rhetoric.
  • Protecting women’s right to determine reproductive outcomes is essential.




Indian Express Editorial Summary

Editorial Topic : New Era of Eurasian Geopolitics: A Strategic Opportunity for India

 GS-2 Mains Exam : IR

Revision Notes

Question : Evaluate the foreign policy dilemmas faced by Western countries amidst Asia’s growing influence in global geopolitics. How should countries like the US navigate their priorities between Europe and Asia?


  • Recent events – Putin’s visit to Asia and US presidential debate – highlight complex ties between European and Asian security.
  • This creates new strategic opportunities for middle powers like India.

Four Dimensions of New “Eurasian” Geopolitics

  1. Shifting Power Dynamics in Europe-Asia Relations
  • Asia’s active role:
    • No longer passive players providing resources (e.g., Indian military) to European powers.
    • Example: Both Russia and West seek Asian support in the Ukraine war.
    • Asian arms supplies in the conflict:
      • South Korea to Ukraine, North Korea to Russia.
      • China indirectly supports Russia.
      • US wants Japan to increase arms production for Ukraine.
  1. Greater Agency for Asian Powers Due to Current Conflict
  • Russia’s strategy:
    • Rebuild ties with North Korea (treaty signed) to challenge the West.
  • North Korea’s leverage:
    • Use Russia to improve relations with other powers (China, Japan, South Korea, US).
  • Potential consequences:
    • Stronger US-South Korea partnership.
    • South Korea may pursue nuclearization if Russia aids North Korea’s nuclear program.
  • Vietnam’s example:
    • Hosts leaders from US, China, and Russia, demonstrating its agency in balancing relations.
    • One of the few countries with growing economic ties with both US and China.
  1. Western Dilemmas amid Asia’s Growing Influence
  • US foreign policy debate:
    • Balancing competing priorities in Europe and Asia.
    • Republican argument: Focus on Asia, not the Ukraine war.
    • Biden administration: China is the main challenge, but Ukraine support is crucial.
    • Debate likely to continue between Trump and Biden.
  1. Europe’s Need for Increased Defense Responsibility
  • US expectations:
    • Europe and Asian allies (India, Japan, etc.) to share burden against Russia and China.
  • Europe’s dilemma:
    • Anxious about Russia but divided on China:
      • Doesn’t fully agree with US strategy.
      • Hopes to influence China to restrain Russia.
      • Economic ties with China complicate confrontation.
    • US encourages Asian allies to contribute to European security as well.

Rise of Middle Powers in the Great Churn

  • Growing interdependence between Europe and Asia creates opportunities for middle powers.
  • US seeks strong security partnerships with middle powers to counter China and Russia.
  • “Integrated deterrence” strategy offers India an opportunity to enhance its military capabilities.


  • This strategic window is temporary.
  • India must act swiftly to seize this opportunity for defense modernization and domestic arms production.
  • Self-sufficiency in arms production is key to achieving “strategic autonomy.”

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