Tackling Tuberculosis: India’s Challenge

Short Notes or Revision Notes

GS-2 Mains 

Question : Examine the challenges faced by India in tackling tuberculosis (TB) and the measures taken to address them.

Introduction to Tuberculosis

  • Cause: Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium.
  • Varieties: Affects lungs (pulmonary TB) or other organs (extra-pulmonary TB).
  • Transmission: Airborne transmission through coughing, sneezing, or spitting.
  • Treatability: TB is treatable and curable.

Underreporting Concerns in India

  • Historical Issue: Under-reporting has hindered India’s anti-TB efforts.
  • Progress: India achieving its target of initiating treatment in 95% of diagnosed cases.
  • India TB Report 2024: Shows improvement in closing the gap between estimated and reported cases.

India’s Anti-TB Program

  • Ambitious Goal: Aim to eliminate TB by next year.
  • MDR-TB Challenge: Multi-drug resistant TB poses a significant threat.
  • Progress in MDR-TB: Increased testing for drug resistance, but more outreach needed.
  • Testing Methods: Molecular testing recommended for accurate diagnosis.
  • Treatment Challenges: Demanding drug regimens and poor completion rates for second-line treatments.
  • Transition to Bedaquiline: Experts advocate for the use of bedaquiline for shorter duration and cheaper generics.
  • Mental Healthcare Integration: Emphasized as a critical aspect of TB treatment, yet lacking in implementation.
  • Affected Demographics: Poor, slum dwellers, and HIV/AIDS patients are most affected by TB.

Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Encouraging Progress: India’s efforts against TB show promising signs.
  • Ongoing Challenges: More efforts needed to defeat TB.
  • Future Strategies: Utilize advanced technology and humane methods for comprehensive TB control.



Africa at the Centre

Short Notes or Revision Notes

GS-2 Mains 

Question : Discuss the significance of Africa in India’s engagement with the Global South, as highlighted by President Droupadi Murmu’s visit to Mauritius.


  • President Droupadi Murmu’s visit to Mauritius highlights Africa’s importance for India’s engagement with the Global South.

Africa’s Significance for the Global South

  • Concept of the Global South:
    • India advocates for a more inclusive global order through the Global South concept.
    • This concept’s effectiveness is debated, but it holds value in a multipolar world.
  • Africa’s strategic importance:
    • Africa’s high growth rate (3.8%) and young population make it a key player.

Opportunities for India-Africa Relations

  • Strong economic ties:
    • $98 billion Indian investments in Africa (2023)
    • $100 billion bilateral trade
    • India is the second-largest credit provider to 42 African countries
    • Around 200 Indian developmental projects completed in Africa
    • Indian social enterprises offer low-cost solutions.
  • Africa’s influence in global forums:
    • Africa’s growing population (3/4 of humanity) and economic power (over 39% of global GDP) necessitate a more inclusive global governance system.
    • India’s support for the African Union in the G20 is a positive step.

India-Africa Development Cooperation

  • Focus areas:
    • Critical mineral sector: Africa holds 30% of the world’s reserves, crucial for the low-carbon future. Cooperation in this sector benefits both India (diversifying supply chains) and Africa (capturing value chains).
    • Building technical skills in Africa: India can collaborate with African technical organizations to enhance negotiation, project management, and technical skills.
    • Research collaboration: Collaboration between Indian and African research institutions can address shared challenges.


  • India’s historical ties with Africa provide a strong foundation for a transformed, multifaceted relationship. This is crucial as India shapes its vision for the Global South.


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