1.Indian Express Editorial Summary : A good augury

GS-1 Mains 

Short Notes or Revision Notes 

Question : Explain the significance of the El Niño and La Niña phenomena on global weather patterns and their potential impact on India’s agricultural sector.

India Anticipates Above-Average Monsoon

India Meteorological Department (IMD) Forecast:

  • Above normal monsoon expected for June-September.
  • Rainfall predicted to be 106% of the long-period average.

Reason for Optimism:

  • Weakening El Niño to neutral conditions in first half of monsoon.
  • Transition to La Niña expected in second half.

El Niño & La Niña:

  • El Niño: Warm phase of ENSO cycle (band of warmer Pacific water).
  • La Niña: Cold phase of ENSO cycle (band of cooler Pacific water).
  • Both impact global weather, wildfires, ecosystems, and economies.

Benefits of a Good Monsoon:

  • Economic Growth:Improved farm sector performance can boost overall growth.
    • Agriculture employs nearly 46% of India’s workforce.
    • Good monsoon can improve rural incomes and consumption.
  • Water Availability:Replenishes drinking water sources and hydropower reservoirs.
  • Positive Sentiment:A good monsoon can provide a strong start for the new government.

Food Inflation Concerns:

  • Food inflation a major concern for government and RBI (8.5% YoY in March).
  • Government wheat stocks are at a 16-year low.
  • Subpar rabi crop production may keep food inflation high.
  • This limits possibilities of policy rate cuts.

Government’s Response:

  • Positive steps: Reduced import tariffs on pulses and edible oils.
  • Negative steps: Export bans/curbs on wheat, rice, sugar, onions.
  • Imposition of stocking limits.


  • Bumper Kharif harvest (6 months away) crucial for economic well-being.
  • Abolishing 40% import duty on wheat recommended.


2.Indian Express Editorial Summary : India’s Development Path as a Model for Others

GS-3 Mains

Short Notes or Revision Notes 

Question : Discuss India’s development model and assess its potential impact on global development.

Key Points:

  • India’s growth demonstrates a successful development model for other countries.
  • Public & private initiative, innovation, and resilience are key factors.
  • India offers practical knowledge at federal, state, and local levels.
  • Three Examples Highlighting India’s Success:
    1. Energy Transition:
  • 42% of India’s power generation capacity comes from renewable energy.
  • World’s 4th largest renewable energy market, 3rd in solar manufacturing.
  • $10 billion annual investment in renewables in the past five years.
  • Supports electric vehicles and green hydrogen production.
  • World Bank invested $1 billion in solar projects, leveraging $40 billion in commercial investment.
  • Challenges: intermittency of renewables, electrification of transportation, industrial decarbonization.
  1. Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI):
  • Pioneered using technology for inclusion (e.g., digital ID).
  • Millions access social programs, bank accounts, and services electronically.
  • Reduced delays in social program payments (e.g., maternity health).
  • Micro-entrepreneurs use digital networks for wider market reach and finance.
  • Affordable connectivity remains a challenge, but innovation is transforming rural communities (e.g., e-commerce, telemedicine).
  • World Bank is sharing India’s DPI experience with other countries.
  1. Female Empowerment:
  • India’s female labor force participation is low, but signs of improvement exist.
  • Government support includes working women hostels, cheap credit, and mentorship.
  • These initiatives, combined with better access to finance, increased female labor force participation in industry to 43%.
  • National Rural Livelihoods Mission empowered millions by organizing women into self-help groups.
  • Over $4 billion in commercial credit mobilized for women-led cooperatives and enterprises.
  • Increasing female labor force participation to the developing country average (50%) could add 1% to India’s growth rate.


  • India’s investment in these areas positions it for a green and sustainable future.
  • As the world’s largest population strives for high-income status, India will continue to shape global development.


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