Indian Express Editorial Summary

Topic-1: Short on Safety: Concerns about India’s Food Safety Regime

GS-2 : Health

Revision Notes


Question : Discuss the recent controversies surrounding baby food, health drinks, and spices in India, and their implications for the country’s food safety regime. How do these incidents reflect on the regulatory oversight provided by FSSAI?


  • Recent allegations against baby food, health drinks, and spices raise questions about India’s food safety regime.
  • The effectiveness of the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is under scrutiny.

FSSAI’s Competency in Question

  • FSSAI is investigating Nestle’s baby food products for high sugar content.
  • The agency is also probing potential carcinogenic additives in popular spice brands like MDH and Everest after concerns from Singapore and Hong Kong.
  • US customs rejected 31% of MDH spice shipments in the past six months due to salmonella contamination.
  • The EU is also reportedly scrutinizing Indian food imports.
  • These incidents, involving major brands, suggest a large part of the Indian market may escape regulatory checks.


  • Established in 2008 under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006.
  • Autonomous body under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
  • Functions include:
    • Setting food safety standards and guidelines.
    • Granting food safety licenses and certifications.
    • Laying down procedures for food business laboratories.
    • Advising the government on food safety policies.
    • Collecting data on food contaminants, emerging risks, and implementing a rapid alert system.
    • Creating a national food safety information network.
    • Promoting food safety awareness among consumers and businesses.

Reasons for FSSAI’s Ineffectiveness

  • Staff and infrastructure shortages have hampered FSSAI’s effectiveness.
  • Regulations are often seen as mere paperwork by the market, lacking proper inspections and guidance.
  • FSSAI struggles to educate businesses and consumers effectively.
  • The agency hasn’t adequately fulfilled its mandate to collect data on food safety issues.
  • Past controversies, like the Vital Neutraceuticals case, highlight procedural shortcomings.
  • FSSAI needs to regularly update food safety standards and assist exporters in navigating international regulations.


  • The failure of MDH to meet US standards reflects poorly on Indian food regulation.
  • A proactive regulator is crucial for India’s growing food market and its global aspirations.



Indian Express Editorial Summary

Topic-2:  Why the Bull Runs: Decoding India’s Stock Market Boom

GS-3 Mains

Revision Notes

Question : Evaluate the role of India’s compelling economic narrative in driving investor optimism and market performance. How do factors such as sustained high economic growth, strong corporate and bank balance sheets, and favorable demographics influence investor sentiment?


  • The number of Indian stock market investors is nearing the number of land-owning farmers, reflecting a shift in the Indian economy.
  • Despite global uncertainties, India’s stock market continues its bullish run.

Performance of the Indian Stock Exchange

  • BSE Sensex PE ratio in April 2024: 25
  • Average PE ratio (2003-04 to 2007-08): 18.61
  • Average PE ratio (2014-15 to 2023-24): 23.81
  • Small-cap and mid-cap segments have seen even greater exuberance, despite concerns about froth and price manipulation.
  • Recovery in these segments suggests stock prices may not be entirely driven by fundamentals.

India’s Compelling Economic Narrative

  • The market’s optimism is fueled by a belief in India’s strong growth trajectory.
  • Favorable factors include:
    • Potential for sustained high economic growth
    • Strong corporate and bank balance sheets
    • Favorable demographics

Enthusiasm from Both Domestic and Foreign Investors

  • Foreign investors are attracted by India’s economic prospects.
  • Indian households are increasingly turning to the stock market for better returns.
  • Demat accounts in India crossed 150 million.
  • Over 90 million unique investors (PAN-based) participate in the stock market, translating to over 17% of Indian households.
  • Mutual funds add another 40 million unique investors.

Investor Demographics in Perspective

  • Compared to stock market investors:
    • The number of agricultural households in India (2019): 93.09 million
    • PM-Kisan beneficiaries (2023-24): 92.1 million
    • Income tax filers (2022-23): 74 million
    • Households with cars (2021): 7.5%

Geographic Spread of Investors

  • Investment participation is no longer limited to major cities.
  • An SBI fund (2023) received applications from 70% of India’s pin codes.
  • Investors now come from roughly 90% of all pin codes.
  • Systematic Investment Plans (SIP) contributions have grown significantly (2016-17: Rs 43,921 crore; 2023-24: Rs 1.99 lakh crore).

Investor Confidence and Market Outlook

  • Some expect a period of market correction after recent gains.
  • Continued domestic inflows could support current valuations.
  • India VIX (fear gauge) remains low, indicating investor confidence.
  • Foreign investors can be fickle – some are rethinking their “buy India, sell China” strategy.
  • Overall, India remains a preferred investment destination due to its stronger economic story.


  • Amidst uncertainties about China’s growth, India’s economy stands out as a preferred investment destination.


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