CHAPTER-5 : Ecology and Environment

Ancient History of India
Short Notes or Revision Notes 


Ecological Impact

Iron Tools and Agriculture (c. 500 BCE)

  • Iron axe and ploughshare use enabled working tougher soils:
    • Mid-Gangetic plains (alluvial)
    • Vindhyan zone (red soil)
    • Deccan and western India (black cotton soil)

Urbanization and Geography

  • Pataliputra (first major city): junction of Ganges, Son, Gandak, Ghagara, Punpun rivers.

Forestry and Settlements

  • Chirand’s location (Ganges-Ghaghara junction) suggests past forests.
  • Neolithic tools (antler bone) from Chirand indicate deer hunting.

Climate Change and Adaptation

  • Inamgaon (Maharashtra) evidence:
    • Arid phase around 1000 BCE forced farmers to abandon settlements.
    • Shift to pastoral nomadism as a coping mechanism.


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