The Hindu Editorials Notes 3rd  July 2019 for UPSC CSE IAS Exam

GS-1 or GS-4 
Question- As violence becomes the norm, is Gandhi to show the way? Explain (200 Words)
Context- The growing incidence of mob violence in our country.
The scenario- 
●As the everyday incidents of violence are on the rise, it is time for us to reclaim the space of non-violence that is under relentless attack by murderers who kill, photograph and celebrate killings.
What violence does to a society?
● The power of violence over human beings cannot be underrated. It is not a weapon that one picks up and discards at will. It has long-term implications.
●It is a quagmire that relentlessly sucks people into its murky depths and when violence holds individuals and groups in thrall, moral disintegration follows.
● Being mute spectators to violence means we are at the consuming end of these nauseating acts even if we don’t want.
What is the way?
● It is recreating satyagraha.
●When protests, writing petitions, assemble, record of our disgust are failing to bring any outcome, it is for the civil society to stand up and recreate Gandhi’s notion of satyagraha.
● Satyagraha is a form of non-violent protest where the satyagrahi endures all pain for a broader cause.
●It emphasises self-suffering rather than making another person suffer. This mode of politics impacts the collective consciousness.
●The people begin to reflect on and analyse the injustice to which their fellow citizens have been subjected to, an injustice that needs to be battled, they also come to think about the methods that should be used to battle these injustices.
● In the process they are politicised and motivated to act.
●They start acting as agents of change rather than consuming violence.
● And this is what is needed today.
● Gandhiji felt this was revolutionary because public opinion becomes a vital force, challenges the injustice and challenges the government for its acts of omission.
● And in this process if required the satyagrahi must be willing to accept all punishment.
Following these footsteps the civil society has to reinvent Gandhi, not as a Mahatma but as a political philosopher who guides us in our struggle against the senseless violence that has crushed our sentiments and our solidarities.
Question- Highlight the need for police reforms and the way ahead. Explain (200 words)
Context- Increased incidences of suicides by police personnel.
Why in news?
● On May 2018, senior Maharashtra IPS officer Himanshu Roy committed suicide due to cancer and resultant depression.
●In September 2018 another IPS officer Surendra Kumar Das committed suicide due to ‘family issues’.
● Similarly, Ajay Kumar of Delhi police was suffering from depression and ended his life on 4th April this year.
●These are just few instances, 940 police personnel committed suicide till Dec 2018.
● In this backdrop there is a serious need to revisit the debate on police reforms.
What can be the issues?
● No fixed hours of duty. They are considered to be on duty all the time. This deprives them of the luxury of spending time with their families. This leads to family conflicts.
● They have to be on duty during festivals to ensure peace.
●K. Annamalai, a 2011 batch IPS officer of Karnataka cadre, resigned from service recently stating that though he enjoyed the challenges of being a police officer, he missed many important functions and “the small things in life”.
● Denial of leave due to operation requirements which often warrant a full-strength force to deal with varied law and order problems, leading at times to frustration.
Present scenario-
● So, while we may blame the officers for suicides, there needs to be a closer look at the operation of the system as well.
● There are large vacancies in police forces, resting huge responsibility on available police personnel.
● Also, health of the police personnel has taken a toll due to erratic working hours and lack of physical exercises.
●Many of them suffer from stress related diseases such as depression and obesity.
● Unable to cope they end their lives.
Way forward- 
●The government needs to take multi prolonged steps with urgency.
●The acute shortage of personnel needs to be filled.
● Senior officers need to identify personnel with deviant behaviour and put them to counselling sessions.
● Frequent conversation between officers and subordinates will help subordinate air the grievances freely. It may even prevent a suicide attempt.
Question- Is Mr. Trump’s visit to North Korea a vital step towards new U.S.- N. Korea ties? Analysis (200 words) 
Context- President Trump’s visit to North Korea.
● The U.S. President Donald Trump made history when he stepped on the North Korean soil from the demilitarised zone (DMZ) that separates the two Koreas.
● He is the only U.S. President to have visited N.Korea.
● Both the leaders decided to resume the parleys that have settled since the two leaders failed summit in Hanoi.
What does the visit mean?
● It means infusing fresh life into nuclear negotiations with N.Korea.
But what are the key challenges?
● Though Kim has decided to denuclearise the peninsula, there is no decision on when and how it will be done.
●N.Korea has agreed to close down the Yongbyon facility, its main nuclear fuel production site but this US has rejected this offer saying N.Korea’s nuclear capability is now much more diversified and goes beyond one plant.
●N.Korea is agreeing to denuclearise partially because it wants a partial reprieve from sanctions.
●But if the U.S. rigidly sticks to its demand of total denuclearisation, then the meeting won’t be very fruitful.
●Both sides need to learn from their past failures.
●they should take small steps towards the final goal.
●The U.S. can demand a total freeze, not complete close down, on N.Korea’s nuclear activities, besides shutting down Yongbyon which N.Korea has already agreed to, in return for providing partial reprieve from sanctions.
● Slow confidence building measures is required.

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