PGP 2019 Batch Only

January  to December 2018

Prelims Special

Perseverance gives validity to your self-determined road map




Related Committes-



   Seventh Schedule (Article 246)

 • The union list details the subjects on which Parliament may make laws e.g. defence, foreign affairs, railways, banking, among others.

 • The state list details those under the purview of state legislatures e.g. Public order, police, public health and sanitation; hospitals and dispensaries, betting and gambling etc.

The concurrent list has subjects in which both Parliament and state legislatures have jurisdiction e.g. Education including technical education, medical education and universities, population control and family planning, criminal law, prevention of cruelty to animals, protection of wildlife and animals, forests etc.


Haryana Government had passed the Haryana Panchayati Raj (Amendment) Act, 2015 requiring minimum qualification for those contesting in panchayat election

73rd and 74th Amendment Act in 1992

 third tier of government at local level

• Under Article 243 (K) (4) of Indian Constitution State Government by law can lay down the qualification for elections to local bodies

 • Article 243 (O) bans the interference of courts in electoral matters. If there is any dispute in the Panchayat Elections, courts have no jurisdiction over them.

*States/UTs with 2-Tier government (usually 3 tier)

Goa, Manipur, Sikkim, D& N Haveli, daman & Diu and Lakshadweep

DRAFT IT RULES The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MEITy)

on the proposed amendments to the rules under Information Technology (IT) Act 2000 that seek to make it mandatory for platforms such as WhatsApp, Facebook and Twitter to trace “originator” of “unlawful” information. Key Suggestions of Draft IT [Intermediaries Guidelines (Amendment) Rules] 2018

Definition of intermediaries Any social media platform with more than 50 lakh users or in the list notified by the government

WhatsApp, Facebook

Privacy Policy intermediary must publish their privacy policy informing the user not to host, display, upload, modify, publish, transmit, update or share any information that is harmful, harassing, blasphemous, defamatory, obscene, threatens security of the state etc.




India rank 6th in Global RTI ranking   .The Right to Information Rating is a programme founded by Access Info Europe (AIE) and the Centre for Law and Democracy (CLD) and is conducted by Transparency International


RTI Act, 2005

·        Act of the Parliament of India to provide for setting out the practical regime of the right to information for citizen

·       Article 19(1) (a) -“right to express choice :voting + right to information.

·       Any citizen of India may request information from a “public authority-within thirty days.

·        overriding effect over Official Secrets Act

·       It covers all the constitutional authorities, including executive, legislature and judiciary; any institution or body established or constituted by an act of Parliament or a state legislature.

·       Privatized public utility companies and private institutions and NGOs receiving over 95% of their infrastructure funds from the government come under the Act.

·       Jammu and Kashmir has separate Right to Information Act – RTI 2009.


 Art. 142– Under this, SC can grant appropriate relief for doing complete justice (where there is some manifest illegality, want of jurisdiction or where some pulpable injustice is shown to have resulted). Curative petition owes its origin to this article.


Witness Protection Scheme

• Procedure:  Secretary, District Legal Services Authority (DLSA) can pass witness protection order for the witness protection under this Scheme for protection of identity/change of identity/relocation of a witness, categorization of threat etc.

 • Physical safety

 • Use of Technology: Holding of in-camera trials, videoconferencing

 • Judicial Support: Ensuring expeditious deposition of cases during trial on day to day basis without adjournments

. • Financial provisions: Witness Protection Fund for the purpose of re-location, sustenance or starting new vocation/profession.


·       Launched by Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bangalore.

·       Monitoring of IUDX: Open Smart Cities of India (OSCI) will be setup as a non-profit, start up company


ICCC Integrated Command and Control Center (ICCC).

• It’s a center where the entire city’s information is collected, viewed and analysed through a City operations center application.  As of June 2018, ICCC were operational under 10 smart cities in India with the latest being Naya Raipur



Committee on Privileges

• Standing committee constituted in each house of the Parliament/state legislature.

• Consists of 15 members in Lok Sabha (LS) and 10 members in Rajya Sabha (RS) to be nominated by the Speaker in LS and Chairman in RS.

 • Its function is to investigate the cases of breach of privilege and recommend appropriate action to the Speaker/Chairperson

Types of Privileges


• Exclude strangers from proceedings. Hold a secret sitting of the legislature

• Freedom of press to publish true reports of Parliamentary proceedings. But, this does not in case of secret sittings

• Only Parliament can make rules to regulate its own proceedings

 • There is a bar on court from making inquiry into proceedings of the house (speeches, votes etc


• No arrest during session and 40 days before and 40 days after the session. Protection available only in civil cases and not in criminal cases

• Not liable in court for any speech in parliament

• Exempted from jury service when the house is in session.


It was introduced in India following the 2013 Supreme Court directive. It is an option the voting machine, designed to allow voters to disapprove all the candidates while delivering their vote

• However, NOTA in India does not provide for a ‘right to reject’

Rule 64 It refers to “declaration of result of election and return of election”.






• With Respect to J&K Constitution: The powers under Section 92 (failure of constitutional machinery) and Section 52 (provides for dissolution of assembly) were invoked for this move

Article 356 (“President’s rule”): In case of failure of constitutional machinery in State the President, on receipt of report from the Governor of the State or otherwise, o may assume to himself the functions of the Government of the State o declare that the powers of the Legislature of the State shall be exercisable by or under the authority of Parliament

A recent amendment to the Enemy Property (Amendment and Validation) Act, 2017, ensures the heirs of those who migrated to Pakistan and China during Partition and afterwards will have no claim over the properties left behind in India

According to Enemy Property Act, 1968, “Enemy property” refers to any property belonging to, held or managed on behalf of an enemy, an enemy subject or an enemy firm.

• The Defence of India Acts defined an ‘enemy’ as a country that committed an act of aggression against India.

Department of Investment and Public Asset Management (DIPAM) has been authorized

‘BEYOND FAKE NEWS’ PROJECT by UK-based broadcasting channel BBC  

·       the fundamental right to freedom of expression as enshrined under Article 19 of the Constitution. However, there is no specific law in India to deal with fake news.

·       Freedom of speech can only be curtailed as per the limited circumstances set out in Article 19(2) of the Constitution of India – and falsehood isn’t one of those ‘reasonable restrictions’.

Section 7 of RBI Act


• Reserve Bank’s affairs are governed by a central board of directors which is appointed for period of four years by the Government of India.

 composes of:

·       Official Directors: Full-time: Governor and not more than four Deputy Governors

·       Non-Official Directors: Nominated by Government: ten Directors from various fields and two government Official o Others: four Directors- one each from four local boards.

Section 7

•   Central government may issue directions to the RBI as it may “consider necessary in public interest” after consultation with the RBI Governor.

 •  deals with ‘management’ of RBI. It also states that “Subject to any such directions, the general superintendence and direction of the affairs and business of the Bank shall be entrusted to a Central Board of Directors which may exercise all powers and do all acts and things which may be exercised or done by the Bank.”



About Gorkhas

• Gorkhas (or Gurkhas) are Nepali-origin people who take their name from the 8th-century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath and from the Nepal hill town of Gorkha.

• In a notification issued on August 23, 1988, the Home Ministry clarified that ‘Gorkhas domiciled in India at the time of commencement of the Constitution, and those born in India, or born to one or both parents born in India, are citizens of India’

HISTORY & Imp facts-.

·       the Treaty of Segoulee in 1816- the Anglo-Nepal war.  Before 1905, when Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon directed the partition of Bengal, Darjeeling was a part of Rajshahi division, which now falls in Bangladesh.

·       For a short period from 1905-1912, it was even a part of Bhagalpur division. Darjeeling was merged with West Bengal after the partition of 1947.

·       All India Gorkha League began a movement for a separate state in 1949.


the right to justice under Article 21

The SC agreed that live-streaming of court proceedings would serve as an instrument for greater accountability and formed part of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

              About Gram Panchayat Development Plan (GPDP):

• It is an annual plan of each panchayat where the villagers would decide where the money should be spent

·       involve people at the grassroots while preparing structured gram panchayat development plans.     

·       also involve thorough audit of the work

·       gram panchayats will have to publicly display all sources of funds collected and their annual spending, along with future development initiatives





Recruitment Process District Court

 following qualifications: 

·       He should not already be in the service of the Central or the state government.

·       He should have been an advocate or a pleader for seven years.

·       He should be recommended by the high court for appointment.

·       Appointment of other Judges (other than district judges) to the judicial service of a state are made by the governor of the state after consultation with the State Public Service Commission and the high court.

Jammu & Kashmir Resettlement Law

known as the J&K Grant of Permit for Resettlement in (or Permanent Return to) the State Act, 1982 .

Mass killing of Muslims in Jammu in 1947 and its ramifications are the main reason why the law was introduced
All India Judicial Service

Articles 233 and 234 of the Constitution vested all powers of recruitment and appointment (of judicial services of the state) with the State Public Service Commission and High Courts.

· Article 312 of the Constitution allows the Rajya Sabha to pass a resolution, by two-thirds majority, in order to kick-start the process of creating an all India service.

 · Once the resolution is passed, Parliament can amend Articles 233 and 234 through a simple law (passed by a simple majority), which will strip States of their appointment powers.

Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016
Habitual Offenders Act


Denotified Tribes

·  the Criminal Tribes Act (CTA) of 1871.

· nearly 200 tribal communities to be hereditary criminals. .

· After Independence, these tribes were denotified‘ from the list of Criminal Tribes, and, hence, the term Denotified Tribes (DNT)


 • In 2015, the Supreme Court struck down Section 66A of the Information Technology (IT) Act, 2000, as unconstitutional.

provides punishment for sending offensive messages through communication services.

 • These messages may be any information created, transmitted or received on a computer system, resource or device including attachments in the form of text, images, audio and video

Private member bill in parliament

EX-Some of the important legislations among them include 26th amendment, which related to abolition of privy purses and 61st amendment, which reduced the voting age from 21 to 18

• Any MP who is not a Minister is referred to as a private member.

 • The key role of the parliament is to debate and make laws and both Ministers and private members contribute to the law making process.

 at least a month’s notice before the Bill can be listed for introduction

 capped to three per session. only on Fridays.

·       private member moves a motion for introduction of the Bill


Preferential voting system

·       a system of voting in which voters indicate their first, second, and lower choices of several candidates for a single office.

 • Under this, a voter can choose just one candidate, but also rank candidates in an order of preference.

• If a candidate wins 50% of the mandate plus one vote, he/she is declared the winner-New Zealand

IN INDIA- a first-past-the-post (FPTP) system.

•  the leading candidate can win an election despite winning a minority of the votes.  The candidate with the highest number of votes, irrespective of the margin of victory or percentage of votes polled, is declared the winner


Rohingyas Deportation-    from Myanmar


What is the deportation case? The men had entered Assam in 2012 without documentation ; prosecuted  under the Foreigners Act.


धारा 124 (राजद्रोह)


. · The offence shall be punished with 7 years imprisonment and shall also be liable to fine.

· It is a Non-Bailable, Cognizable offence and not compoundable

·       applies to assaulting high constitutional functionaries such as the President and the Governor with ―an intent to compel or restrain the use of any lawful power.

· It was intended to cover cases where these functionaries are prevented from exercising their power through criminal force, attempts to overawe, or wrongful restraint

Indian Medical Council (Amendment) bill 1.adapt National Exit Test (NEXT)

2. Integrating Medical Streams AYUSH doctors to the allopathic pool

National Database on Sexual Offenders


By National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) under the Ministry of Home Affairs


· It will include names, photographs, residential address, fingerprints, DNA samples, and PAN and Aadhaar numbers, of convicted sexual offenders.

· The database will contain more than 4.5 lakh cases, including profiles of first-time and repeat offenders, based on details compiled from prisons across the country.

· The offenders will be classified on the basis of criminal history and the data will be stored for –

 1. 15 years in the case of those classified as posing ―low danger

 2. 25 years for those presenting ―moderate danger

 3. Throughout lifetime for ―habitual offenders, violent criminals, convicts in gangrape and custodial rapes.

· It will only have details of persons who are aged 18 or more




Term of office – Now, the chairperson and members of the NHRC e to hold office for 5 years or till the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier.
· Composition – Now, the chairperson of NHRC is to be a person who has been a Chief Justice of the Supreme Court




· In 1993, the UN General Assembly adopted the Paris Principles on Human Rights.

 ·  Protection of Human Rights (PHR) Act 1993.

 · Every 5 years the NHRC has to undergo accreditation by an agency affiliated to the UN Human Rights Council (UNHCR).

· The Commission‘s compliance to the Paris Principles is ascertained in this process.

 · Better the grade, higher the benefits; if India gets an A-status, the NHRC has some privileges.

· It can play a pivotal role in the decision making processes of the UNHRC

National Register of Citizens for Tripura

·  Tripura was ruled by the Manikya dynasty,  of late 13th century until the signing of Instrument of Accession with the GOI on Oct15, 1949

Who are Tripura’s indigenous people?

·  19 notified Scheduled Tribes in Tripura, among whom the Tripuris are the largest group, aboriginals as they migrated first.

.· The 2011 Census puts the number of Tripuris, who belong to the Indo-Mongoloid family, at 5.92 lakh, followed by Reangs (1.88 lakh) and Jamatias (83,000).

Aadhaar Act as Money Bill

Section 7 -benefit or service would be from the Consolidated Fund of India.

Section 57 -STRUCK DOWN





• Welfare schemes (PDS, LPG, MGNREGA etc.)

• I-T returns

• Linking to PAN card


• Banks accounts

• SIM cards

• Private companies

• School admissions


RESERVATION IN PROMOTIONS Article 16 (4A): reservation in promotion, with consequential seniority, in favour of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes which are not adequately represented



Nine judge bench in Indra Sawhney case(1992)

o  Mandal Commission’s 27 % quota for backward class, combined reservation should not exceed 50%.

o  struck down 10% government jobs for economically backward classes

o Creamy layer must be eliminated from the Backward Classes.

 o There should be no reservation in the promotions

77th (CA), inserted Clause 4A in Article 16 and restored provision of reservations in promotions

 85th CA Act, 2001 gave back “consequential seniority” to SC/ST promotes

CRIMINALIZATION OF POLITICS -Santhanam Committee; Vohra Committee; Padmanabhaiah Committee

Section 295A of IPC

punish aggravated insults to religion, with the intention to ‘disrupt public order’ which is well within the purview of reasonable restrictions provided under Article 19(2) of the Indian Constitution
FAMILY LAW REFORMS Law Commission of India has released a Consultation Paper on ‘Reform of Family Law’


Uniform Civil Code?

•  a common set of laws governing personal matters for all citizens of the country, irrespective of religion.

• Currently, different laws regulate these aspects for adherents of different religions

3 COURT BASED REMEDIES 1)Public law remedy:  a violation of fundamental rights under Article 21 (the right to life and liberty)

  Article 22 (protection against arbitrary arrests and illegal detention, etc.)

 – invokes the writ jurisdiction of Supreme Court and High Courts under Article 32 and 226 respectively.

2) Private law remedy:   form of civil suits against the state for monetary damages on account of tortious acts of public servants.Both public and private law remedies are victim centric in nature.

3) Criminal law remedy:  holds the wrong doer accountable i.e. proceedings with criminal action against the concerned officers of the State for their misconduct

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966

• Other important parts of the covenant are-

o Right to Physical integrity

o Liberty & Security of Persons

o Procedural fairness & Right of accused

o Individual Liberties

o Political Rights


International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966

• deal with the miscarriage of Justice.

•  commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial.

• As of August 2017, the Covenant has 172 parties and six more signatories without ratification.

•  part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights(UDHR).

Proxy Voting


Voting in an Indian election can be done in three ways-

 o in person

o by post

o and, through a proxy

• Under proxy voting,

 a registered elector can delegate his voting power to a representative.

•  introduced in 2003 for elections to the Lok Sabha and Assemblies

• Only a “classified service voter” —  includes members of the armed forces, BSF, CRPF, CISF, General Engineering Reserve Force and Border Road Organisation — is allowed to nominate a proxy to cast vote on his behalf in his absence. ; can also vote by postal ballot.

Inner Line Permit (ILP) ·       British-era system to regulate entry and exit of outsiders in a protected area.

·       operational in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland.

·       outsiders to obtain a permit from the government to enter the designated territory

·       issued for travel purposes solely.

·       main objective -to provide a special protection of the distinct identity and safeguard for the peaceful existence of the indigenous people of the state

VARIETIES OF DEMOCRACY REPORT ·       an international research project which aims to develop new indicators of democracy in all countries all over the world from 1789 to the present.

·       led by the V-Dem Institute at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

·       covers 178 countries ; backed by the European Union

National register citizenship



40 lakh exclusions include D-voters— doubtful voters


·       list of all bona fide Indian citizens of Assam, the only state with such a document.

·       being updated as per the provisions of The Citizenship Act, 1955 and The Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003

·       names appear in any of the electoral rolls upto the midnight of 24th March, 1971

Law Commission of India



constituted every 3 year

 current 21st Law commission



·       non-statutory body ,executive body

·       major function is to work for legal reform.

·       The First Law Commission was established in 1834 by the British Government under the Chairmanship of Lord Macaulay

·       fixed tenure and works as an advisory body to the Ministry of Law and Justice


Lodha Committee on Betting


·       Under list II , state list

·       against the social norms and the principle of welfare State under Article 39


Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill (FEOB) ,2018 person to be declared as a fugitive economic offender (FEO) if:

   o arrest warrant for any specified offences – over Rs 100 crore,

   o he has left the country and refuses to return to face prosecution.

 Valid on loan defaulters + fraudsters + individuals who violate laws governing taxes, black money, benami properties and financial corruption.

• The Enforcement Directorate (ED) will be the apex agency to implement the law.

 a Special Court (designated under the Prevention of Money-Laundering Act, 2002) containing details of the properties to be confiscated, and any information about the person’s whereabouts.



Vijay kumar committee

Regulation of NGOs

The Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA) was introduced in 2010, — a license– to receive foreign funding.

  renewed every five years

DELHI status

69th Amendment- created legislative assembly for Delhi

·       Delhi government has power in all areas except land, police and public order

·       the LG is bound by the aid and advice of the government in areas other than those exempted

·       Article 239-AA, which allowed the LG to refer to the President any issue on which there was a difference of      opinion with the council of ministers. In such a case, the LG would be bound by the President’s decision



SC –issue of drinking water has to be placed on a “higher pedestal”, raised the share of Cauvery water for Karnataka by 14.75 tmcft and reduced Tamil Nadu’s share, while compensating it by allowing extraction of 10 tmcft groundwater from the river basin

Cauvery Water Regulation Committee (CWRC)

·       HQ at Bengaluru

·       consist of a Chairman and one representative each of the party states, Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), Central Water Commission (CWC) and Ministry of Agriculture & Farmer’s Welfare, along with a Member Secretary. 

act as a technical arm with following functions:

·       Collecting data regarding levels, inflows, storages and release of water periodically.

·       Preparing seasonal/annual report of the water account for SW monsoon, NE monsoon, Hot weather 



SPECIAL CATEGORY STATUS (SCS)  Rejection of ―special status‖ for Andhra Pradesh


introduced in 1969 by the 5th Finance Commission based on the Gadgil formula ;1991 the Gadgil-Mukherjee formula was adopted that was in use till the 14th finance commission(Y.V Reddy)

A 370 A




A 371B A




A 371F A




J&K Parts of Mah

& GJ




(Jio MaJi NAaM Aur kaaM ho ASa) (so easy to remember seq of first 7)



mParivahan application

application for issuance and verification of documents

It is launched by the Centre government under the Digital India programme.

1 GB of storage space



by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation

·       fully funded by Government of India. The annual MPLADS fund entitlement per MP constituency is Rs. 5 crore

·       at least 15 per cent of the MPLADS entitlement for the year for areas inhabited by Scheduled Caste population and 7.5 per cent for areas inhabited by S.T. population.

ARTICLE 161 Article 161, is the parallel provision of Article 72, empowers the State Governor to grant pardons,

suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases

powers differ for the President and Governor?

·       The President has pardoning powers with respect to central laws while the governor’s powers are with respect to state laws.

·       The president is the only authority to pardon a death sentence. Governor can suspend, remit or commute a death sentence but not pardon.

·       The president has pardoning powers in respect to punishment or sentence by a court martial; the governor possess no such power

Official Language of India

Pravah’ is an e-learning platform to learn Hindi through their mother tongue.

developed by the department for use in 16 Indian languages including English.

‘Kanthasth’ is a computer software developed by the department for translating the all kinds of official files from English to Hindi and vice versa.

·       Hindi written in Devanagari script:for a period of 15years from the commencement of the constitution, English will continue to be used.

·       The President may, during the said period, by order authorize the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals.

·       Even after 15 years, the Parliament by law may provide for the continued use of English for any specific purpose.

·       It is also special responsibilityof the centre to develop and spread the official language (Hindi) of the union (art. 351).


TRANSFORMATION OF ASPIRATIONAL DISTRICTS aims to quickly and effectively transform the chosen 115 districts, with at least one from 28 states (excluding Goa).

• The broad contours  Convergence (of Central & State Schemes), Collaboration (of Central, State level ‘Prabhari’ Officers & District Collectors), and Competition among districts

·       real time data and driven by Mass Movement.

 NITI Aayog will anchor this programme.

·       selected Key Performance Indicators5 sectors have been identified

Health & Nutrition, Education, Agriculture and Water Resources, Basic Infrastructure and Financial Inclusion and Skill Formation.

 appointment of Central and State Government Officers at the level of

Additional/Joint Secretary as the “Prabhari” and Nodal Officers.

Special Development Project will be changed to be a Central Sector Scheme with 100% grant (from current 90:10 between centre and state).

 Extension of 100% centrally funded North Eastern Road Sector Development Scheme (NERSDS).

 Scheme namely Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources-Central [NLCPR (Central)] is also transferred to NEC for implementation.

 total funds available to NEC are proposed to be bifurcated in two components.

o State component (60%) + Central component (40%)

North Eastern Council (NEC)

·       nodal agency for the economic and social development of the North Eastern Region which consists of the eight States of the region, with their respective Chief Ministers and Governors representing them.  statutory body established in 1972 via the North Eastern Council Act, 1971

·       for three key objectives viz. balanced development of the North Eastern Region; effecting better inter-state coordination; and maintaining security and public order in the region.

·       In the 2002 amendment of the Act the role of the NEC has been upgraded from advisory body to that of regional planning body


·       under the administrative control of the Ministry of Development of the North Eastern Region (DoNER).


About NCDC

 •  sole statutory organisation (under Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare) functioning as an apex financial and developmental institution exclusively devoted to cooperative sector.


About Yuva Sahakar

• Purpose: To cater to the needs and aspirations of the youth,  youth-friendly scheme for attracting them to cooperative business ventures

 • CSIF fund: The scheme will be linked to a ‘Cooperative Start-up and Innovation Fund (CSIF)’ created by the NCDC with an annual outlay of Rs 100 crore and it has special incentive for cooperatives of North Eastern region, Aspirational Districts and cooperatives with women/SC/ST/PwD members

• Funding:  up to 80% of the project cost for the special categories as against 70% for others. The scheme envisages 2% less than the applicable rate of interest on term loan for the project cost up to Rs 3 crore including 2 years moratorium on payment of principal.

 • Eligibility: All types of cooperatives in operation for at least one year and having positive net-worth

Prasar Bharti



Pitroda Panel

statutory autonomous public broadcasting agency

under the Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India) Act, 1990.

 it comprises Doordarshan Television Network and All India Radio, which were earlier part of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting



•                    2017, a paper by NITI Aayog on SE was released discussing the relevance of the idea


structuring the Indian election cycle in a manner that elections to Lok Sabha and State Assemblies-synchronized together under which voters in a particular constituency vote for both State Assembly and

Lok Sabha the same day.

• Earlier, SEs were held in India till 1967 which was disrupted due to premature dissolution of Assemblies.

• Election to the third tier of democracy cannot be included in SE 



Powers of governor in SAs

regulation for peace and good governance of any area in a state which is a Scheduled Area like prohibiting or restricting the transfer of land

o To direct about non-application of any act which Tribal Advisory Council .

o Consisting of twenty members of which three-fourths must be representatives of Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assembly of that State.

. the Governor may repeal or amend any Union or State law.

o The Governor can make such regulations only after consultation with the TAC of the state.

Article 244

 the Fifth Schedule –apply to the administration and control of the Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes in any State other than the States of Assam Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram

The criteria for declaring an area as Scheduled Area

• preponderance of tribal population

• compactness and reasonable size of the area

• under-developed nature of the area

These criteria are not spelt out in the Constitution of India but have become well established.

States with scheduled areas

Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan and Telangana, are under provision of scheduled areas

SCHEDULED CASTES AND THE SCHEDULED TRIBES (PREVENTION OF ATROCITIES) ACT ·       prohibits the commission of offences against members of the SCs and STs

·       establishes special courts for the trial of such offences and the rehabilitation of victims.

·       outlines actions (by non SCs and non STs) against SCs or STs to be treated as offences.

·       specifies that a non-SC or ST public servant who neglects his duties relating to SCs or STs shall be punishable.

·       Investigation of an offence committed under the SC/ST Act cannot be investigated by an officer not below the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP)

·       The act was amended in 2016 to add new offences to atrocities such as garlanding with footwears etc., addition of chapter on the ‘Rights of Victims and Witnesses’, defining ‘willful negligence’ of public servants clearly and addition of presumption of offence.


Under MoHuman Resource Management

Quasi judicial body

adjudicatory and recommendatory functions

अल्पसंख्यक शिक्षण संस्थानों के प्रकार

o राज्य द्वारा मान्यता प्राप्त करने के साथ ही सहायता लेना

o केवल राज्य द्वारा मान्यता प्राप्त करना

o न तो मान्यता लेना और न ही सहायता


• पहले और दूसरे प्रकार के संस्थान राज्य की नियामक शक्ति के अधीन हैं w.r.t. पाठ्यक्रम के नुस्खे, शैक्षणिक मानक, अनुशासन, स्वच्छता, रोजगार आदि।

• तीसरे प्रकार की संस्थाएं अपने मामलों का प्रबंधन करने के लिए स्वतंत्र हैं, लेकिन अनुबंध कानून, श्रम कानून, औद्योगिक कानून जैसे सामान्य कानूनों के संचालन के अधीन हैं



Supreme court has given following judgement in the case of Hadiya


1.Right to choice



4.Constitutional Protection



revamped version of Rajiv Gandhi Panchayat Sashaktikaran Abhiyan


centrally sponsored scheme which aims at making rural local bodies self-sustainable, financially stable and more efficient.

 fully funded by Central Government.

The State component includes ‘Capacity Building of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs)’.

·       extend to all States and UTs of the Country and will also include institutions of rural local government in non-Part IX areas, where Panchayats do not exist.

·       implemented in a demand driven mode

·       aligned to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with main thrust on Panchayats identified under Mission Antyodaya and 115 Aspirational districts as identified by NITI Aayog.

• It focuses on: o Promoting devolution of powers and responsibilities to Panchayats according to the spirit of the Constitution and PESA Act.




Four areas in constitution where population is used as a factor

 Manner of Election of President (Article 55)

Composition of the House of the People (Article 81)

 Composition of the Legislative Assemblies (Article 170)

 Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of the States (Article 330).

quasi-judicial body;constituted by the President of India every fifth year.

 consists of a chairman and four other members to be appointed by the president.

makes recommendations about the following to the President of India:

o The distribution of the net proceeds of taxes between the centre and the states

o  grants in aid to the states by the centre

o The measures needed to augment the consolidated fund of states to supplement the resources of the local governments in the states on the basis of the recommendations made by the State FC

the terms of reference (TOR) to successive Finance Commissions

only advisory in nature

The 14th FC accorded 27.5% weight to the population (of which 17.5% was of the 1971 population), 15% to area, 7.5% to forest cover and 50% to income distance

COMPETITION COMMISSION OF INDIA (CCI) CCI Act, 2002 with following functions: To Prevent practices having adverse effect on competition

o To Promote and sustain competition in markets

o To Protect the interests of consumers

o To ensure freedom of trade carried on by other participants in the markets of India.


• Competition Appellate Tribunal (COMPAT) was subsumed into NCLAT (National Company Law appellate Tibunal) in 2017

NITI FORUM FOR NORTH EAST Will base projects in the NER on the concept of “HIRA” (Highways, Inland Waterways, Railways and Airways).

• In the meeting, following five development missions in different sectors have been outlined:

o Horticulture

o Tourism

o Food processing

o Bamboo-based handicrafts

o Medium scale industries


• Himachal Pradesh became the first state to use e-vidhan site and launch a mobile app.

mission mode project to digitize and make the functioning of State Legislatures in India paperless.

The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs is the Nodal Ministry for the project.

Public Authority under RTI act Section 2(h) –

o By or under the Constitution;

o By any other law made by Parliament; state legislature;  the appropriate Government, and includes any—

Body owned, controlled or substantially financed (The RTI Act does not define substantial financing. Consequently, courts are often required to decide whether a particular form and quantum of financial aid constitutes substantial finance.)

Non-Government organization substantially financed, directly or indirectly by funds provided by the appropriate Government.

Central information commission under the Right to Information Act

, established in 2005, to act upon complaints from those individuals who have not been able to submit information requests to a Central Public Information Officer or State Public Information.

includes 1 Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and not more than 10 Information Commissioners (IC) who are appointed by the President of India.

• The jurisdiction of the Commission extends over all Central Public Authorities.

Demand for Separate Lingayat religion



Lingayats account for nearly 17 per cent of the KARNATAKA‘s



 strict monotheists.

 worship of only one God, namely, Linga (Shiva).

Linga‘ here does not mean Linga established in temples. rather the universal consciousness qualified by the universal energy (Shakti).

Status – Hindu sub-caste called ―Veerashaiva Lingayats

evolved from a 12th century movement led by social reformer and philosopher-saint Basavanna.

Guillotining Bills in the Parliament lawmaking arenas, to ―guillotine‖ means to bunch together and fast-track the passage of financial business, without debate
No-confidence Motion


No confidence Motion passed with majority- Govt falls

As per the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha, any member of the house can move a no-confidence motion.

 need not give a reason for moving a no-confidence motion

minimum of 50 members have to accept the motion

If accepted– motion is to be discussed.- within 10 days

Under Voice Vote―Division of Votes‖ or other means.

There is no time-limit that must be adhered to between two no-confidence motions

NATIONAL WATER INFORMATICS CENTRE (NWIC) to maintain a comprehensive water resources data.

single window source of updated data on water resources in India.

work as a Subordinate Office under the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation.

headed by a joint secretary level officer

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT (NIDM) premier institute for training and capacity development

programs for managing natural disasters in India, on a national as well as regional basis.

constituted under the Ministry of Home Affairs serves as international SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC)


UNDP has proposed to set up a skill development centre exclusively for clients of Bharosa

one stop crisis centre that was set up by Hyderabad Police which will ensure support to women and children who are victims of violence.

initiated in 2016.             24X7 services

Significance of S.R Bommai vs Union of India put an end to the arbitrary dismissal of State governments under Article 356 by spelling out restrictions.

Both Houses of Parliament disapprove or do not approve the Proclamation, the Proclamation lapses at the end of the two-month period.

Discretionary Power by Governor Selecting a chief minister after elections when there is hung assembly.

Dismissing the government, if the cabinet no longer holds the confidence of the house.

Dissolving the Legislative Assembly due to political instability.

 Advising the President to proclaim emergency if the conditions in state are not viable for normal conduct of the government.

Rajya Sabha – ‘Rules of Procedure’ Reforms

Agnihotri committee

every detail of how the Houses function on a daily basis.

• determine MPs’ participation in parliamentary proceedings while making laws, passing budgets,questioning the government and representing us.

National Health Protection Scheme” (Ayushman Bharat) Upgrading the 150,000 sub-centres by enhancing their services.

Providing health security (5 lakh insurance) to 40% of the population

‘Adopt a Heritage’ scheme


The Red Fort has been leased out to the Dalmia Bharat Group

tourism ministry

Objective – attempt to increase public-private partnership in conservation and maintenance of heritage sites.-‘Monument Mitras’.

Privileges – The Monument Mitras will be given “visibility” on the monument premises.

Selection – through Vision Bidding

Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC)

ad-hoc parliamentary committees which are usually formed when a motion for it is adopted by one house and supported by the other house.

presiding officers of both houses can also discuss and form JPCs,

even without house resolutions

Significantly, Lok Sabha : 2/3rd members and

                        Rajya Sabha  – 1/3rd.

constituted for specific purposes


Thus far, JPCs have been constituted

for Bofors Scam, 1992 Stock Market

Scam, 2G Scam, Soft Drink Pesticide

Regulating Lobbying

e CBI alleged that AirAsia tried to influence India‘s international flying regulations through


लॉबिंग से तात्पर्य सरकार के नीतिगत निर्णयों को प्रभावित करने की प्रथा से है


यह कोयला-खनन के लिए पर्यावरण के नियमों को शिथिल करने या राष्ट्रीय हित पर प्रभाव डालने जैसा हानिकारक हो सकता है।

Amendments to RTE Act

scrapped the “no detention” policy. regular examination in classes V and VIII.

If a child fails-additional opportunity to take a re-examination within 2 months.

The amendment leaves it to states to decide whether to continue the no -detention


mandates free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14


 to curb the sharp dropout rates in elementary education.


 Women’s Entry into Sabarimala Temple

Supreme Court is hearing petitions challenging the prohibition of women of 10 to 50 years of age to enter the

Sabarimala temple

temple’s legal back up?

Rule 3(b) of the Kerala Hindu Places of Public Worship (Authorisation of Entry) Rules, 1965- “Women who are not by custom and usage allowed to enter a place of public worship shall not be entitled to enter or offer worship in any place of public worship.”

 claims, through the Travancore Devaswom Board, that its deity, Lord Ayyappa, is a “Naisthik Brahmachari.”

So allowing young women to enter the temple would affect the idol‟s “celibacy” and “austerity”.

Mullaperiyar issue

Tamil Nadu owns dams in Mullaperiyar, Parambikulam, Thunakadavu and Peruvaripallam in Kerala

The Supreme Court had struck down the Act, and the order went against


Tamil Nadu government wants to raise the water level to 142 feet and

carry out repair.

But Kerala has opposed it citing safety threats.

Kerala Irrigation and Water Conservation (Amendment) Act 2006

limits the full reservoir level to 136 feet.

Language Data of 2011 Census

appears to inadequately reflect India‟s linguistic composition, and is inconsistent with global ideas



Of these, 22 are included in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution, called “Scheduled Languages”.



Mother tongues – 19,569 names of mother tongues, technically called “raw returns”.

This was based on the previously known linguistic and sociological information.

The left out “raw returns” represent nearly 60 lakh citizens-Because of the classification regime, their linguistic citizenship has been dropped.

A total of 1,369 names, called “labels”, were picked as “being names of languages”.

Others – In addition to these shortlisted “mother tongue” names, there were 1,474 other mother tongue names.

Scheduled – The 1,369 labels have been grouped further under a total of 121 “group labels”.-group labels have been presented as “Languages”.

The remainder, 99, are “Non-scheduled Languages”.



As of now,  7 states have a Legislative Council.

They are Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana, and

Uttar Pradesh.

 Article 169- Parliament may by law create or abolish the second chamber in a state if the Legislative Assembly of that state passes a resolution to that effect by a special majority.

article 171 , the total number of members in the legislative

council of a state shall not exceed one third of the total number of the members in the legislative Assembly of that state and the total number of members in the legislative council of a state shall in no case be less than 40.

Though the Constitution has fixed the maximum and the minimum limits, the actual strength of a Council is fixed by Parliament.


Second Chamber in States


Odisha’s plan calls for a national policy on the utility of a second chamber in States.

benefits of a second chamber?

• An Upper House provides a forum for academicians and intellectuals.

• They are arguably not suited for the nature of electoral politics.

• In essence, it provides a mechanism for a more serious appraisal of legislation

Significance of Art 35A and Art 370



Supreme Court is hearing petitions challenging the validity of Art 35A

Art 35A

•  inserted as part of the amendments made through a 1954 presidential order,   imposed under Article 370.

• It empowers J&K to define a class of persons as constituting “permanent residents” of the State.

•  allows the government to confer on these persons, special rights and privileges.

•  relate to matters of public employment, acquisition of immovable property in the State, settlement in different parts of the State, access to scholarships and other such aids that the State government might provide.

• It exempts such legislation from being annulled on the ground that they infringe on many of the fundamental rights.

Code of Conduct for Members of Legislature A Code of Conduct for members of Rajya Sabha has been in force since 2005.

• However, there is no such code for the Lok Sabha.

• A code for Union ministers was adopted in 1964, and state governments were advised to adopt it as well.

• A conference of Chief Justices in 1999 resolved to adopt a code of conduct for judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts.

• The 15-point ‘Re-instatement of Values in Judicial Life’ was adopted.

• It recommended that serving judges should maintain an air of “aloofness” in their official and personal lives

RERA act



Maharashtra Real Estate Regulatory Authority (MahaRERA) came into effect recently


• Real Estate (Regulations and Development) Act 2016 -deal with the issues arising from transactions in real estate market.

• Only registered developers or promoters in the State are allowed to sell, book or advertise their projects.

• Without a registered sales agreement, no developer can accept more than 10% of the cost as advance payment from a buyer.

• In case of delay, the promoters are mandated to pay interest to the buyers for every month of delay over the advance payment.

•  registered projects -upload on an online map so that buyers can view


statutory bodies – established to promote interstate cooperation and coordination.

under the States Reorganisation Act 1956.

only advisory powers.

five zones.

The North Eastern States’ special problems are addressed by another statutory body – The North-Eastern Council, created by the North Eastern Council Act, 1971

Composition of Zonal Councils

Chairman – The Union Home Minister

Vice Chairman – The Chief Ministers of the State; each holding office for a period of one year at a time.

Members- Chief Minister and 2 other Ministers as nominated by the Governor from each of the States

+ 2 members from Union Territories included in the zone.

Advisers– One person nominated by the Planning Commission (which has been replaced by NITI Aayog now) for each of the Zonal Councils, Chief Secretaries and another officer/Development Commissioner

nominated by each of the States included in the Zone.

Union Ministers are also invited to participate



The Commission shall consist of:

o A Central Vigilance Commissioner – Chairperson;

o Not more than two Vigilance Commissioners – Members


Appointment of Members

 appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal

three-member committee consisting of the

prime minister as its head, the Union minister of home affairs and the Leader of the Opposition

in the Lok Sabha.


About CVC

apex Indian governmental body to address governmental


by K. Santhanam.

 status of an autonomous body, free of control from any executive authority.

monitoring all vigilance activity under the Central Government of

India, advising various authorities in central Government organizations in planning, executing, reviewing and reforming their vigilance work.


term of four years or until they attain the age of sixty five yrs

After their tenure, they are not eligible for further employment under the Central or a state government


From January 1, 2019, all classes of motor vehicles will come fitted

with tamper-proof High Security Registration Plates (HSRP) that have

a host of in-built security features

The security features

A chromium-based hologram

A permanent identification number with a minimum of 10 digits will be laser-branded

The permanent number will be preceded by two alphabets indicating the name of the vendor,petrmanufacturer, or supplier, for whom the Type approval certificate was issued by the testing agencies




government plans to launch a natural gas trading hub , creating an Indian gas benchmark which will spark a surge in consumption of the cleaner-burning fuel


to protect the interests of consumers and entities engaged in specified activities relating to petroleum, petroleum products and

natural gas and to promote competitive markets.

established under The Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006.

The board has been mandated to regulate the refining, processing, storage, transportation,distribution, marketing and sale of petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas excluding production of crude oil and natural gas

The PNGRB consists of Chairperson, a Member (Legal) and three other members.

MODEL CODE OF CONDUCT VIOLATION REPORTING APP multi-lingual application launched by ElectionCommission to share evidence of malpractice by political parties.

made available for the first time in Bengaluru

 to encourage larger public participation in checking corrupt

practices in elections and ensure free and fair elections.

It also records geo-location of reported incidents and the officials

SYSTEMATIC VOTERS EDUCATION AND ELECTORAL PARTICIPATION (SVEEP) flagship program of the Election Commission of India for voter education

Voters’ Behaviour Surveys

Electoral literacy was made a major component of the Sakshar Bharat Programme

VOTER VERIFIABLE PAPER AUDIT TRAIL (VVPAT) second line of verification VVPAT prints a slip containing name of the candidate and the election symbol

It is an independent system which consists of two parts, namely, VVPAT Printer and VVPAT Status Display Unit (VSDU).

ELECTORAL BOND SCHEME 2018 purchased by a person, who is a citizen of India or incorporated or established in India.

A person being an individual can buy Electoral Bonds, either singly or jointly with other individuals.

Only the Political Parties registered under Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951  +  not less than one per cent of the votes polled in the last General Election to  the Legislative Assembly of the State

The Electoral Bonds shall be encashed by an eligible Political Party only through a Bank account with the Authorized Bank.


 for fifteen calendar days from the date of issue

CVIGIL launched by Election Commission of India to help citizens so as to report any violation of the model code of conduct during elections.
INDIAN BUREAU OF MINES multi-disciplinary government organisation under the

Department of Mines, Ministry of Mines.

It is engaged in promotion of conservation, scientific development of mineral resources and protection

of environment in mines other than coal, petroleum & natural gas.

It was set up on 1st March, 1948.

ISLAND DEVELOPMENT AGENCY Holistic development of islands :key infrastructure projects, digital connectivity, green energy,desalination plants, waste management, promotion of fisheries, and tourism-based projects.

 chaired by the Union Home Minister.

Members of IDA include cabinet secretary, home secretary, secretary (environment, forests and climate change), secretary (tourism) and secretary (tribal welfare).

26 islands identified



an initiative by NITI Aayog which is aimed at building an

ecosystem for women across India so as to realize their entrepreneurial aspirations




three pillars on which WEP is built: Ichha Shakti, Gyaan Shakti

& Karma Shakti.

Ichha Shakti : motivating aspiring entrepreneurs to start their enterprise,

Gyaan Shakti: providing knowledge and ecosystem support to women entrepreneurs to help them foster entrepreneurship.

Karma Shakti :provide hands-on support to entrepreneurs in setting-up and scaling up businesses.

intends to undertake this task through its partner organizations, private as well as public organizations; by bringing their existing as well as new women specific initiatives on a single platform

महिला राष्ट्रीय आयोग



apex national level organisation of India with the mandate of protecting and promoting the interests of women.

formed in the year 1992.

statutory status under the National Commission for Women Act, 1990.

They were established to

   o review the Constitutional and Legal safeguards for women ;

   o recommend remedial legislative measures ;

   o facilitate redressal of grievances and

   o Advise the Government on all policy matters affecting women

NATIONAL TESTING AGENCY setup by Ministry of Human resource

development to conduct entrance examinations for higher educational institutions.

setup as a Society registered under the Indian Societies Registration Act, 1860.

 Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) and the National Eligibility Cum Entrance Test (NEET) for admission to all medical colleges in the country, except AIIMS and JIPMER, Puducherry.

It would be setup as an autonomous and self-sustained premier testing organization.

conducted in online mode at least twice a year, thereby giving adequate opportunity to candidates to bring out their best.



Indian Administrative Service (IAS) probationers are to be associated with the ongoing second phase of the

Gram Swaraj Abhiyan in the 115 aspirational districts of the country

launched for reaching out to poor households, spreading awareness about

government welfare schemes and other people centric initiatives.

bjective – promote social harmony, spread awareness about pro-poor initiatives of government, and reach out to poor households to enroll them as also to obtain their

feedback on various welfare programmes.

 started from 14th April on the occasion of Ambedkar Jayanti.

Government has decided to extend it in 115 Aspirational Districts identified by the NITI Aayog.

During this abhiyan, saturation of eligible households/persons would be made under seven flagship pro-poor programmes.

These programmes are Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana, Saubhagya, Ujala scheme, Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana and Mission Indradhanush.

In addition, 5 priority are related activities under Education, Health, Nutrition, Skills and Agriculture also been identified as per district plan.

RAIL MADAD (MOBILE APPLICATION FOR DESIRED ASSISTANCE DURING TRAVEL) app launched by railway ministry to expedite & streamline passenger grievance


Rail Madad is a part of system called RPGRAMS (Railway Passenger Grievance Redressal and Management System), which has been developed by Northern Railway (Delhi Division).

Through this app passenger can register their complains

It relays real time feedback to passengers on the status of redressal of their complaints- the

passenger gets an instant ID through SMS on registration of complaint followed by a customized

SMS communicating the action taken thereon by Railway.

More about RPGRAMS

RPGRAMS integrates all the passenger complaints received from multiple modes (14 offline/online modes currently) on a single platform


initiative of the Ministry of Rural

Development (MoRD)

 to reduce poverty and improve the lives of people in

rural India

Objectives of the Program

It was launched with objectives such as

o Providing short-term catalytic support to improve programme delivery.

o Developing a cadre of committed and competent development leaders and facilitators


All India Common Entrance Test (AICAT)


under the Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005.

Ministry of Women & Child


Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 years age group.

In consonance with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child

 has responsibilities under POCSO Act,2012 and RTE Act,2009

can inquire into complaints and take suomotu

Convention on the Rights of the Child

adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1989


prescribes standards in securing the best interest of

the child and outlines the fundamental rights of children.

Countries that ratify the Convention agree to be legally bound by its provisions.

The UNCRC has 54 Articles each of which entails a different type of right such as:1. Survival rights     2. Developmental rights

                                3.Protection rights    4.Participation rights.


a Program on Ethics in Public Governance

by Indian Railways

To train every employee to understand the need and value

of ethics in Personal and Public life.

o To deal with ethical dilemmas.

o To help understand the policies of Indian Railways o To develop inner governance



Kerala : best-governed state in the country in the Public Affairs Index 2018 for the third

consecutive year since 2016


10 themes, 30 focus subjects and 100 indicators were measured to derive the PAI.

The states were divided into two categories,

o Large (Greater than 2 Crore population)

o Small

study across all the Indian states across 10 themes such as essential infrastructure, support to human development, social protection, women and children as well as law and order.


Ranking-Good Governance

o Among Larger States: Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telengana

o Among smaller states: Himachal Pradesh, Goa and Mizoram

Ranking-Better living conditions for children: Kerala, Himachal Pradesh and Mizoram


founded in 1994 by Indian economist and scholar Samuel


The index is released since in 2016 by Bengaluru based Public Affairs Centre (PAC),



refers to a situation where companies making profits in

one jurisdiction, shift them to countries with lower tax rates taking

advantage of gaps in tax laws

a joint initiative between G20 countries and the OECD.

 headed by the OECD

 15 action plans

It’s objectives include

Securing revenues by realigning taxation with economic

activities and value creation,

Create single consensus-based international tax rules

Offering increased certainty and predictability to taxpayers.

In 2016, the OECD and G20 established an Inclusive Framework on BEPS to allow interested countries

and jurisdictions to develop standards on BEPS related issues


123rd Constitutional Amendment Bill


inserts Article 338 B



constitutional body.

established through NCBC Act 1993 under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment

 Supreme Court in its judgement of Indra Sawhney & Others Vs.

union of India & others case. It was ordered to examine and recommend for inclusion and complaints

of under-inclusion, over-inclusion or non-inclusion in list of OBCs.


NCBC examines request for inclusion of castes into backward classes and hear complaints of over and under inclusion.

 advice is generally binding upon central government.

Further, every 10 years, the central government undertakes revision of the lists by consulting it.

The commission has powers of a civil court in few matters.


Launched by

Minister for Road Transport & Highways (MoRTH), Shipping, Water Resources, River Development and

Ganga Rejuvenation


portal aimed at streamlining the process of pre-qualification of bidders for EPC (Engineering, Procurement, and Construction) Mode of contracts for National Highway works with enhanced transparency and objectivity.

The portal will work as a data base of information about bidders, covering basic details, civil works experience, cash accruals and network, annual turnover etc.

 and for online technical evaluation of civil works bids.

What is Bhoomi Rashi?

portal developed by MoRTH and NIC.

 comprises the entire revenue data of the country (of about 6.4 lakh villages) and will make the required land acquisition notification process for road construction online.

The portal has also been linked with the public finance management system, which will enable flow of funds from the Consolidated Fund of India to the land owner’s account


Transport Ministry Notifies Colour for Registration Mark of Battery Operated Vehicles

Yellow colour on Green- All Battery Operated Vehicles

White colour on Green -all other cases

3 Forms of talaq Ahsan, Hasan and Talaq-e-Biddat (triple or instant talaq). Ahsan and

Hasan are revocable but Biddat — pronouncing divorces in one go by the husband — is irrevocable.

Biddat is considered ‘sinful’ but permissible in Islamic law.



The Telecom Commission, the highest-decision making body in the telecom department (DoT), will

from now onwards be called the Digital Communication Commission

establishment of a National Digital Grid by creating a National Fibre Authority


four million jobs

$100 billion of investments into the telecom industry by 2022

8% of GDP

principles of net neutrality.

to raise India’s ranking in the global ICT Index to the 50th spot.

universal broadband connectivity at50 Mbps to every citizen

1 Gbps connectivity to all gram panchayats by 2020

to ensure connectivity to all uncovered areas.

to expand the IoT ecosystem to 5 billion connected devices



efficient and convenient public transport

report titled ‘Transforming India’s Mobility: A Perspective’ prepared by the NITI Aayog and Boston Consulting Group (BCG) recommended “Safe, Adequate, Holistic Infrastructure or SAHI” as the future of mobility in India

Prime Minister Modi’s ‘7C’s’ for the future of mobility- common, connected, convenient, congestion free, charged, clean and cutting-edge

INDIAN NEWSPAPER SOCIETY central organization of the Press of India

The society was founded in 1939



focus on overcrowding in prisons, unnatural deaths of prisoners, gross inadequacy of staff and the lack of trained staff and comprehensively examine and respond to the dire necessity of reforms in prisons

scrapped two Scientific Advisory Committees (SAC) for the Prime

Minister and the Cabinet, and replaced them with a nine member, Prime Minister’s Science, Technology and Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC).


 members are allowed free discussions outside the comfort zone of officials.

chaired by the government’s Principal Scientific Advisor.

PM-STIAC has a single industry member, given the government’s call to industry is to increase jobs via entrepreneurship.

high level advisory  


The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POCSO Act) 2012 was established to protect

the children against offences like sexual abuse, sexual harassment and pornography.

child as any person below eighteen years of age

evidence of the child should be recorded within a period of thirty


trial within the period of one year from the date of taking cognizance of the abuse.

prescribes rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years



to protect women from sexual harassment at their place of work.

This statute superseded the Vishakha Guidelines for prevention of sexual harassment introduced by the Supreme Court of India.

The Justice J.S. Verma Committee formed in the aftermath of the December 16 Nirbhaya gangrape in 2012 recommended changes to the Sexual Harassment at the Workplace Bill



Delhi University, Jawaharlal Nehru University will not be brought under ESMA.

to maintain “certain essential services and the normal life of the community.”

 prohibits the key employees in these services from striking.

ESMA gives police the right to arrest, without a warrant, anybody violating the Act’s provisions.

Jammu and Kashmir is exempt from ESMA

Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organization (PESO) to control and administer the usage of explosives, petrol stations in India.

issues licenses for Operation of Petrol Stations, Licenses to operate Petroleum Product Transportation vehicles, Licenses for Refineries, Petrochemical Complexes, etc.

comes under, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Government of India.

 headed by Chief Controller of Explosives and is headquartered at Nagpur in Maharashtra


It is a measurement framework for tracking or monitoring the progress of nationally defined Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and associated targets.

 developed by Ministry of Statistics and Programme implementation.

NIF will help in outcome-based monitoring & reporting on progress on SDGs at National level.


About Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

a set of goals adopted for the progress of mankind in different respects for the next 15 years.

adopted by the UN General Assembly in its 70th Session.

17 SDGs

not legally binding

DOCTRINE OF COLOURABLE LEGISLATION under the ‘color’ or ‘guise’ of power conferred for

one particular purpose, the legislature cannot seek to achieve some other purpose which it is otherwise not competent to legislate on.

Doctrine of Colorable Legislation is built upon the founding stones of the Doctrine of Separation of Power.

THE DOCTRINE OF NON-RETROGRESSION once a right is recognized, it cannot be reversed

(invoked in the supreme court judgement on privacy)


Uttarakhand high court appoints itself legal guardian of cows in state by invoking the ‘parens patriae’


means ‘parent of the country.’

It is a doctrine that grants the court inherent power and authority to act as guardian for those who are unable to take care for themselves.


the ICT-based, multi-modal



The PRAGATI platform uniquely bundles three latest technologies:

1. Digital data management

2. Videoconferencing

3. Geo-spatial technology

PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation) is an innovative project in egovernance

and good governance.

The platform is aimed at addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.

Prime Minister will hold a monthly programme

 It is a three-tier system (PMO, Union Government Secretaries, and Chief Secretaries

of the States)

About Lokpal and Loayukta

main functions are

o To address complaints of corruption.

o To make inquiries and investigations

o To conduct trials

{lokpal- central;lokayukta-state}

Constitution of Lokpal

 consist of a Chairperson and a maximum of eight Members,

  (fifty percent shall be

judicial Members)

Fifty per cent of members of Lokpal shall be from amongst SC, ST, OBCs, Minorities and Women

Lokpal Selection committee

The selection of Chairperson and Members of Lokpal shall be through a Selection Committee.

headed by the prime ministerad497



violates Articles 14 and 21

punished a married man for the offence of adultery if he had sexual relations with a married woman without the consent or connivance of her husband.

The sexual act is exempted from punishment if it is performed with the consent or connivance of the husband of the other woman.

NATIONAL DISASTER RELIEF FUND defined in Section 46 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005

(DM Act)

NDRF is to supplement the SDRF, in case there is a calamity of “severe nature”



Justice B.N. Srikrishna

Storage of Data Classification and Consent of Data Penalty Mechanism


·       Critical personal data of Indian citizens -processed within the country.

o At least one copy of the data

o For data processors not present in India, the Act

will apply to those carrying on business in India

or other activities such as profiling which could cause privacy harms to data principals in



Central government to notify categories of personal data that

will be considered as critical.

o Personal data may be processed on the basis of the consent of the data principal

o It added that processing of sensitive personal data should be on the basis of “explicit consent.”


On right to be forgotten


penalties for data processor as well as compensation to data

principal to be imposed for violations of the data protection law.

to take prompt action on a data security breach.



·       a Data Protection Authority  set up


·       set up an Appellate Tribunal.


·       No retrospective application


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