Chapter 3

From Gathering to Growing Food

Short Notes


  • Farming emerged due to global climate change, observing plant growth, leading to crop cultivation.

  • People started domesticating animals, beginning with dogs, followed by sheep, goats, cattle.

  • Grains served as seeds, food, and gifts, stored by humans alongside animals, a food source.

  • Neolithic Age began around 10,000 years ago, marked by tools like mortars, pestles.

  • Mehrgarh, near Bolan Pass, saw early farming of barley, wheat, among the earliest villages.

  • Tribes formed with specific customs. Farming, herding found in various sites with plant remains, animal bones studied for evidence.

  • Neolithic Age: Post-10,000 years ago, featured pit-houses, tools like mortars, pestles.

  • Cotton cultivation initiated weaving of clothes.

  • Tribes formed by farmers and herders, practicing specific customs.

  • Mehrgarh, near Bolan Pass, earliest village cultivating barley, wheat.

  • Excavations reveal chronological levels, house remains with compartments, burial sites.

  • DaojaliHading, near Brahmaputra Valley, yielded stone tools, jadeite.

  • Domestication: Animal taming for various uses.

  • Fossil Wood: Ancient wood transformed into stone.

  • Levels: Layers of waste form mounds.

  • Neolithic Age: History post-10,000 years ago.

  • Tribes: Groups of farmers/herders.

  • 12,000 years ago: Domestication begins.

  • 10,000 years ago: Neolithic Age starts.

  • 8,000 years ago: Mehrgarh settlement commences.

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