10th october 2019- Prelims Sure Shot 



Ten Years after Crash mission – NASA thirst for Lunar Water

  • LCROSS was launched with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in 2009.
  • It aimed to determine if water-ice exists in a permanently shadowed crater at the Moon’s South Pole.
  • LCROSS and LRO found evidence of the lunar soil in shadowy craters.
  • It also revealed that the Moon is chemically active and has a water cycle.
  • LCROSS also confirmed the water was in the form of mostly pure ice crystals in some places.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sent a Lunar CRater Observations and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) to the moon’s south pole, the space agency is about to start the same project again.



Gynecomastia is a condition that makes breast tissue swell in boys and men. It can happen when the balance of two hormones in your body is thrown off. Boys’ bodies mostly make a hormone called testosterone, which guides their sexual growth during puberty. But males also make some estrogen — the hormone that steers sexual growth in girls.

When a boy is going through puberty, or when an older man’s body makes less testosterone, the balance of the two hormones changes, sometimes when that happens, a higher percentage of estrogen causes male breast tissue to swell.


White-throated kingfisher

The white-throated kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis) also known as the white-breasted kingfisher is a tree kingfisher, widely distributed in Asia from the Sinai east through the Indian subcontinent to the Philippines.

This bird is the State Bird of West Bengal.


Chemistry Noble 2019

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019 was awarded jointly to John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino “for the development of lithium-ion batteries.” Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionized the world of technology. The batteries power everyday products such as smartphones, laptops and even electric vehicles.


Shore Temple

Built in the 7th century, Shore Temple depicts the royal taste of Pallava dynasty. During the reign of Rajasimha, the temple saw its construction when Pallava art was at its apex. This work of genius was recognized and listed amongst the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.

Shore Temple comprises three shrines, where the prominent ones are dedicated to Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu and one to Ksatriyasimnesvara.


Rafale Fighter

The Rafale is a 4th generation Aircraft with twin-engine, multi-role fighter aircraft

Features –

  • An active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar which enables the pilot to look 200 to 400 kms away. It gives long range precision strike capability, the pilot can detect enemy aircraft and share the information and also destroy the targets.
  • The 4th generation Aircraft capabilities involve Situational awareness in which Aircraft has got those sensors which enable the pilot to be aware situationally and detect the enemy Aircraft for which the Rafale has got AESA radar.
  • The weapons package includes Meteor radar guided Beyond Visual Range (BVR) missile considered the best in the class with range of over 150 km and Scalp long range air to ground missiles. The Rafale will also be fitted with MICA missiles, an Air to Land precision missile of more than 300 km range.
  • The Rafale Aircraft will give India a superior Nuclear Strike capability and add to the existing nuclear strike capability of Sukhoi Su-30 and Mirage-2000.


Consumer Price Index (Rural and Agricultural Labourer)

Consumer Price Index is a measure of change in retail prices of goods and services consumed by defined population group in a given area with reference to a base year. This basket of goods and services represents the level of living or the utility derived by the consumers at given levels of their income, prices and tastes.

CPI (Rural) is compiled by the Central Statistical Organization (CSO) in the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Base Year for calculation is 2012. In a typical rural scenario most of the population practice agriculture, hence get many products from their own farm. The rest buy their needs from local market/ bazaar where mostly the producers themselves sell the products. Hence, in a rural market, demand for products is low but supply is high. This ensure the cost of the products remain low. And when cost of essential products is low, the salary requirement is low, resulting in the cost of services also being low. This is a cyclic process leading to low cost of living in rural areas.

The number of items in CPI basket include 448 in rural.

Labour Bureau has been compiling CPI Numbers for Agricultural Labourers since September, 1964.The base of CPI (AL) was 1960-61=100. This series of CPI Numbers was then replaced by CPI for (i) Agricultural and (ii) Rural Labourers with base 1986-87=100 from November, 1995 onwards . CPI for Agricultural and Rural labourers on base 1986-87=100 is a weighted average of 20 constituent state indices and it measures the extent of change in the retail prices of goods and services consumed by the agricultural and rural labourers as compared with the base period viz 86-87. This index is released on the 20th of the succeeding month. CPI-AL is basically used for revising minimum wages for agricultural labour in different States.


Mahatma Gandhi NREGA

Mahatma Gandhi NREGA was notified on 7th September 05.

  • The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), Govt of India is monitoring the entire implementation of this scheme in association with state governments
  • This act was introduced with an aim of improving the purchasing power of the rural people, primarily semi or un-skilled work to people living below poverty line in rural India. It attempts to bridge the gap between the rich and poor in the country. Roughly one-third of the stipulated work force must be women.
  • Adult members of rural households submit their name, age and address with photo to the Gram Panchayat. The Gram Panchayat registers households after making enquiry and issues a job card. Registered person can submit an application for work in writing (for at least fourteen days of continuous work) either to Panchayat or to Programme Officer.
  • The Panchayat/Programme officer will accept the valid application and issue dated receipt of application, letter providing work will be sent to the applicant and also displayed at Panchayat office. The employment will be provided within a radius of 5 km: if it is above 5 km extra wage will be paid.



Kaziranga National Park

  • It is a national park in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India.
  • It is a World Heritage Site.
  • The sanctuary hosts two-thirds of the world’s great one-horned rhinoceroses. Rhinos are listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red list of Threatened Species.
  • Tigers:Kaziranga is home to the highest density of tigers among protected areas in the world, and was declared a Tiger Reserve in 2006.
  • Fauna:The Park is home to large breeding populations of elephants, wild water buffalo, and swamp deer.
  • Important Bird Area: Kaziranga is recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International for conservation of avifaunal species.


Data Localization

Data localization is the act of storing data on any device that is physically present within the borders of a specific country where the data was generated.


 Global Competitive Index by World Economic Forum

  • The Global Competitiveness Index (GCI), which was launched in 1979, maps the competitiveness landscape of 141 economies through 103 indicators organized into 12 pillars.
  • The pillars, which cover broad socio-economic elements, are: institutions, infrastructure, ICT adoption, macroeconomic stability, health, skills, product market, labour market, the financial system, market size, business dynamism and innovation capability.



Aarey Forest

Aarey Colony is a neighborhood in Goregaon (East). It was established as Aarey milk colony, in 1949, to revolutionize the processing and marketing of dairy products in the city. It is a ‘forest’ area, which begins in Powai and goes all the way till Western Express Highway, Goregaon in Mumbai, Maharashtra.

Aarey colony is known for its massive variety of flora and fauna. It has 77 species of birds, 34 species of wildflowers, 86 species of butterflies, 13 species of amphibians, 46 species of reptiles, 16 species of mammals and 90 different types of spiders. Several newly discovered species of scorpions and spiders have been found here. Two of these are even named after Aarey- Heterophrictus aareyeneis (tarantula) and Lychas aareyensis (scorpion). In spite of the vast variety of wildlife, the leopards are the most famous residents of Aarey.




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