August 2023 :  Yojana Magazine GIST : Micro Notes or Revision Notes : Yojana Magazine Summary


Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav (Celebrating 75 Years of Indian Independence)


  • Initiative to celebrate 75 years of Indian independence (2021-2023).
  • Aims to honor India’s history, culture, and achievements.
  • Inspired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision of “Aatmanirbhar Bharat” (self-reliant India).

Five Themes

  1. Freedom Struggle:Recounts stories of freedom fighters and historical milestones.
  2. Ideas@75:Focuses on ideals and philosophies shaping India’s future.
  3. Actions@75:Highlights efforts to strengthen India’s global position.
  4. Resolve@75:Emphasizes collective determination for a better future.
  5. Achievements@75:Celebrates India’s progress as a 75-year-old nation.

Initiatives and Campaigns 2.0

Aligned with the Prime Minister’s “Panch Pran” (five vows), these campaigns focus on:

  • Women and Children
  • Tribal Empowerment
  • Water Conservation
  • Cultural Pride
  • Sustainable Living
  • Health and Wellness
  • Inclusive Development
  • Self-Reliant India (Aatmanirbhar Bharat)
  • Unity

Mera Maati Mera Desh (My Land, My Country) – Culminating Event

  • A tribute to fallen heroes (Veers and Veeranganas) from August 9th, 2023.
  • Activities and ceremonies across India at various levels (Panchayat to National).

Key Elements

  • Shilaphalakam:Stone memorials erected locally to express gratitude.
  • Panch Pran Pledge:A solemn oath affirming commitment to India’s development, self-reliance, heritage, unity, and security.
  • Vasudha Vandhan (Nurturing the Earth):Planting 75 indigenous trees and developing “Amrit Vatika” (Elixir Garden).
  • Veeron Ka Vandan (Saluting the Brave):Honoring freedom fighters and their families.
  • Rashtragaan (National Anthem):Singing the national anthem at ceremony sites.
  • Amrit Kalash Yatra (Elixir Urn Journey):Collecting soil from villages/towns for a national urn.

Other Initiatives

  • Har Ghar Tiranga (Tricolor at Every Home):Encouraging hoisting the national flag for India’s 76th independence day.
  • Mera Gaon Meri Dharohar (My Village, My Heritage): Culturally mapping 6.5 lakh villages, with over 2 lakh already completed.


Integrated Approach for Holistic Well-being in India

Combining Traditional and Modern Medicine

  • A new approach integrates traditional medicine with allopathy for holistic well-being.
  • This combines strengths of both systems, addressing physical, mental, and spiritual needs.

Ayushman Bharat Initiative

  • Launched in 2018, Ayushman Bharat offers comprehensive healthcare:
    • Health and Wellness Centres (AB-HWCs) provide primary care and wellness activities.
    • Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY) offers free hospitalization for the poor.
  • Over 23 crore Ayushman cards created and 28,368 hospitals empanelled.

Digital Transformation

  • Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission (ABDM) creates a digital health infrastructure.
  • Ayushman Bharat Health Accounts (ABHA) provide unique IDs for patients.
  • E-health initiatives like eSanjeevani services expand access to specialist care.

Pandemic Response and Preparedness

  • India rapidly expanded its testing capacity to over 3,388 labs by 2022.
  • Atmanirbhar Bharat reduced diagnostic costs and increased domestic production.
  • Pradhan Mantri Ayushman Bharat Health Infrastructure Mission (PMABHIM) strengthens healthcare infrastructure.

Human Resources for Health (HRH)

  • Since 2014, government strategies increased skilled HRH availability.
  • India now has over 1.07 lakh medical education undergraduate seats.
  • New nursing colleges will add 15,700 graduates annually.

Immunization and Disease Control

  • Universal Immunization Programme improved coverage from 62% (2015-16) to 76.4% (2019-21).
  • Consistent efforts reduced malaria cases by 85.3% and Japanese Encephalitis cases by 52.8% (2014-2021).
  • Pradhan Mantri TB-Mukt Bharat Abhiyan raises awareness about free TB treatment.

Mental Health and Well-being

  • Tele-MANAS, a digital mental health service, has received over 1.5 lakh calls.
  • Government-funded health insurance coverage has risen substantially.
  • Out-of-pocket health spending has declined by 16% since 2013-14.

Benefits of Traditional Medicines

  • Recognizing their effectiveness, the government integrates traditional practices.
  • Standardized protocols and evidence-based guidelines are being developed.
  • Ministry of AYUSH promotes traditional medicine and collaboration with allopathy.

India’s G20 Presidency

  • The theme “One Earth, One Family, One Future” reflects India’s commitment to global well-being.
  • It is inspired by the ancient Indian principle of “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam” (the world is one family).


Indian Economy: Historical Perspective and Way Forward

Liberalization and Growth (1990s-2000s)

  • 1991 Reforms: Addressed macroeconomic imbalances with policies like:
    • Dismantling license raj
    • Encouraging foreign investment
    • Privatization
    • Flexible exchange rate
  • Results:
    • Increased real GDP growth (5.5% in 1980s to 6.3% in 1993-2000)
    • Boosted external trade (trade-to-GDP ratio rose from 17.2% to 30.6%)
  • Early 2000s:
    • Further liberalized FDI
    • New Telecom Policy (1999) – IT sector boom
    • Disinvestment and privatization gained momentum
    • FRBM Act addressed fiscal deficit

High Growth Phase (2003-2008)

  • Global growth at 4.8%, India’s average growth exceeded 8%.
  • Factors:
    • Strong domestic activity
    • Improved corporate performance
    • Favorable global conditions
    • Substantial capital inflows

Reforms Since 2014

  • Focus: Restore growth potential, improve infrastructure.
  • Initiatives:
    • Eased business regulations (IBC, RERA)
    • Tax reforms (GST, lower tax rates)
    • Increased public spending on infrastructure
      • Capital Expenditure up from 2.8% (2013-14) to 3.8% (2022-23)
      • National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP) – ₹111 lakh crore investment by 2024-25

Promoting Manufacturing and Exports

  • Atmanirbhar Bharat & Make in India initiatives
  • Production Linked Incentives (PLIs) attract investments
  • Liberalized FDI policy (automatic route for most sectors)

MSME Support

  • Decriminalizing minor offences under Companies Act
  • Emergency Credit Line Guarantee Scheme (ECLGS)
  • Revised MSME definition (Atmanirbhar Bharat)
  • TReDS platform for faster MSME payments
  • Retail & Wholesale trades included as MSMEs
  • Extended non-tax benefits for growing MSMEs

Digital Economy

  • Digital economy grew 2.4x faster than overall economy (2014-2019)
  • Digital infrastructure:
    • Created digital identities
    • Improved access to finance and markets
    • Reduced transaction costs
    • Enhanced tax collection

Way Forward

  • Contextually relevant economic reforms considering demographics and strategic challenges.
  • Goal: Achieve steady growth leading to India’s 2047 vision.

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