India’s Growing Stature: A Rising Power

Question : Explain India’s approach to combatting climate change through Mission LiFE and its alignment with the Paris Agreement goals.

Indian Leadership

  • India led G20 with a values-based approach, emphasizing global cooperation and a human-centric vision.
  • Advocated for inclusion of African Union (AU) into G20, promoting representation and solidarity with Global South.
  • Key initiatives under Indian leadership: International Solar Alliance (ISA), Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI), Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative (IPOI), and Infrastructure for Resilient Island States (IRIS).
  • Proposed Green Grids Initiative – One Sun One World One Grid (OSOWOG) at the International Solar Alliance (ISA) in 2018.

Mission LiFE and Climate Crisis

  • Mission LiFE focuses on individual behavior to combat climate change.
  • India achieved its Paris Agreement goals before 2030 and announced ambitious targets, including 500 GW renewable energy capacity by 2030.
  • Advocacy for sustainable lifestyles through Mission LiFE aligns with India’s commitment to environmental sustainability.

Clean Energy

  • PM Modi highlighted India’s clean energy efforts at G7 Summit, emphasizing collaboration with the US under the US-India Strategic Clean Energy Partnership (USISCEP).
  • Clean Energy and Climate Partnership (CECP) promotes clean energy cooperation and implementation of the Paris Agreement.
  • India’s focus on renewable energy and climate-friendly sources contributes to global sustainability goals.

Resilient Supply Chains

  • $10 billion production-linked incentive (PLI) scheme to encourage chip manufacturing in India addresses supply chain crisis.
  • Trilateral Supply Chain Resilience Initiative with Australia and Japan aims to enhance supply chain resilience.

Digital Infrastructure

  • Digital India initiative launched in 2015 aims to transform India into an empowered digital economy.
  • Increased affordability and accessibility of the internet, leading to 48 billion real-time digital transactions in 2021.
  • Indian digital infrastructure model, including UIDAI Aadhaar and unified payment portals, garners global interest.

Yoga and Ayurveda

  • Promotion of yoga and Ayurveda for holistic health and immunity.
  • India’s support for healthy living habits and traditional medicine, including export of medicines and vaccines to various countries.

International Year of Millets

  • 2023 declared as the International Year of Millets (IYoM-2023) by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA).
  • Millets contribute to food security and dietary health, with superior nutritional content compared to major cereal crops.
  • India’s proposal for IYoM-2023 supported by 72 countries, emphasizing global recognition of millets’ importance.


  • India’s trajectory marked by significant progress and global leadership.
  • Entering Kartavya Kaal signifies an opportunity for unprecedented progress.
  • India emerges as Vishwa Mitra, Vishwa Guru, and Vishwa Vaid, emphasizing its role as a global friend, teacher, and physician amidst global challenges.



Transport System in India

Ministry of Road Transport and Highways

  • Formed in 2009
  • Responsible for formulation and administration of rules, regulations and laws relating to road transport and transport research
  • Includes construction and maintenance of national highways, administration of Motor Vehicles Act, and formulation of policies related to road transport

Road Network

  • India has about 62.16 lakh km of road network, the second largest in the world
  • National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is responsible for development, maintenance and management of National Highways

National Highways Development Project (NHDP)

  • Launched in 1998 to upgrade major highways in India
  • Managed by NHAI under the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways
  • Aimed to improve economic development of the country

PM GatiShakti Plan

  • A digital platform to bring various ministries together for integrated planning and implementation of infrastructure connectivity projects
  • Aims to facilitate last-mile connectivity and reduce travel time

National Highways

  • Total length of NH (including expressways) in India is 1,32,499 km
  • Carry about 40% of the road traffic in India

National Registry of Vehicle and License Records

  • Transport Mission Mode Project for a consolidated transport database
  • Includes Vahan and Sarathi applications for vehicle registration, licensing, and related activities


  • National Electronic Toll Collection (NETC) for seamless movement of traffic through fee plazas
  • Uses FASTag for electronic toll collection


  • Indian Railways is a vast network of 7,308 stations spread over 68,043 km with a fleet of 13,215 locomotives
  • Plays a vital role in the economic, industrial and social development of the country

Research and Development

  • The Research Design and Standards Organisation (RDSO) is the R&D wing of Indian Railways


  • Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways (MoPSW) is responsible for shipping, shipbuilding, ship repair, major ports and inland water transport
  • India has a long coastline of about 7,517 km

Maritime Development

  • Sagarmala Programme aims to promote port-led development in India

Major Ports

  • India has 12 major ports and about 205 non-major ports

Inland Water Transport

  • India has about 14,500 km long navigable inland waterway network
  • National Waterways Act, 2016 promotes inland water transport

Civil Aviation

  • Ministry of Civil Aviation monitors and controls the civil aviation sector in India
  • Regional Connectivity Scheme (RCS) – Ude Desh ka Aam Naagrik (UDAN) aims to make air travel affordable

Airports Authority of India (AAI)

  • Responsible for administration and management of airports and civil aviation in India

GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN)

  • A collaborative system to improve the accuracy and reliability of GPS signals for civil aviation

Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan

  • Aims to provide accessible air travel for people with disabilities


India’s Industry Sector

Question : What are the objectives of the PM GatiShakti National Master Plan, and what technological platform does it employ for planning and development?


Question : How does the National Logistics Policy, launched in 2022, aim to improve logistics efficiency, and how does it complement the PM GatiShakti National Master Plan?


PM GatiShakti National Master Plan

  • Aims for integrated infrastructure development
  • GIS-based technology platform for planning and development
  • Three-tier institutional arrangement for coordinated implementation

National Logistics Policy

  • Launched in 2022 to improve logistics efficiency
  • Complements PM GatiShakti National Master Plan

Foreign Direct Investment Policy

  • Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) formulates FDI policy
  • Maintains data on inward FDI

Make in India

  • Launched in 2014 to promote manufacturing
  • Focuses on 27 sectors under Make in India 2.0

Production Linked Incentive Scheme

  • PLI schemes for 14 key sectors to boost manufacturing
  • Aims to make India globally competitive

Startup India

  • Launched in 2016 to support startups
  • 99,371 startups recognized by DPIIT as of May 15, 2023
  • Fund of Funds with a corpus of INR 10,000 crore to meet funding needs

Heavy Industries

  • Ministry promotes heavy industry sectors
  • 29 Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs)

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)

  • Important for job creation and entrepreneurship
  • Classified into micro, small and medium based on investment and turnover
  • Udyam Assist Platform launched to bring informal micro enterprises under the formal ambit

Indian MSME Sector

  • Contributes 27% of GDP and 44% of exports
  • Employs over 11.10 crore people

Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)

  • Promotes Khadi and village industries for rural employment


  • Largest textile industry in the world
  • Contributes 7% of industrial output and 15% of exports
  • Employs over 45 million people


  • India’s crude steel capacity is 161.30 MT, world’s second-largest


  • Department of Fertilisers ensures fertilizer availability
  • Manages financial assistance for fertilizers

Chemicals and Petro-chemicals

  • Department of Chemicals and Petro-chemicals regulates chemicals, petrochemicals and pharmaceuticals


  • India is the world’s third-largest pharmaceutical industry
  • Total Annual Turnover of Pharmaceuticals industry is Rs 3,79,450 crore for 2022-2023

Geological Survey of India (GSI)

  • Premier earth science organization providing geological information

Indian Bureau of Mines

  • Established in 1948 for conservation and exploitation of mineral resources



Agriculture and Rural Development in India

Question : Describe India’s record production of food grain and horticulture in 2022-23. What factors contributed to this increase, and what were the production figures for rice and wheat during this period?

Increased Budget Allocation

  • Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare allocated Rs 1,25,036 crore for FY 2023-24
  • Increase in target for agriculture credit to Rs 20 lakh crore
  • New scheme PM Matsya Sampada Yojana launched for fisheries

Record Production

  • India set new records for food grain (330 million tonnes) and horticulture (352 million tonnes) production in 2022-23
  • Foodgrain production increased by 4% and horticulture production by 1%
  • Record production of rice (135 million tonnes) and wheat (110 million tonnes)

Initiatives for Growth

  • PM-PRANAM scheme promotes sustainable use of fertilizers and alternate farming practices
  • Nano-DAP liquid fertilizer launched to improve fertilizer efficiency
  • G20 Agriculture Ministers’ Meeting held in Hyderabad with a focus on food security and nutrition
  • ‘Promoting Digital Transactions in 50,000 Gram Panchayats’ campaign launched

Rural Development Programs

  • Jal Jeevan Mission providing tap water connections to rural households (13 crore connections achieved)
  • PM Ujjwala Yojana extended for providing LPG connections to rural population (75 lakh new connections planned)
  • PM Gram Sadak Yojana for rural road construction (1,77,119 roads built)
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act providing employment in rural areas (201.96 crore person-days created)
  • Mission Amrit Sarovar for water body rejuvenation (over 67,000 sarovars constructed)
  • Swachh Bharat Mission for rural sanitation (75% ODF Plus villages achieved)






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