November 2023 : Yojana Magazine GIST : Micro Notes or Revision Notes : Yojana Magazine Summary


New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration (NDLD): A Unanimous Stand

Key Achievements

  • Unanimous agreement (83 paragraphs) by G20 countries under India’s Presidency.
  • Shift from conflict to development and cooperation.
  • Focus on strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth.

Policy Directions

  • Promote trade and investment, WTO reform.
  • Address skill gaps and promote decent work.
  • Foster transparency, accountability and integrity.

Accelerating SDGs

  • Action plan for accelerating SDG progress with data as a key driver.
  • G20 Deccan HLPs on Food Security and Nutrition 2023 to ensure global food security.
  • Recognition of climate change’s impact on health and establishment of a Global Initiative on Digital Health.

Green Development Pact and Mission LiFE

  • Comprehensive roadmap for addressing climate crisis through global cooperation.
  • Commitment to align NDCs with Paris Agreement goals.
  • Calls for substantial financial and technological support from developed nations.
  • New Collective Quantified Goal on climate finance by 2024 and doubling adaptation finance by 2025.

Multilateral Banks and Technological Transformation

  • Emphasis on better, larger and more effective Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs).
  • G20 Framework for Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) established.
  • Support to Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) for DPI growth through One Future Alliance.

Gender Equality and Empowering Women

  • The declaration champions women-led development, economic and social empowerment.
  • Establishment of the Women’s Working Group.

Voice of the Global South and People’s G20

  • Advocacy for including the African Union (AU) as a permanent G20 member.
  • People’s G20 initiative for public involvement.


  • India’s G20 Presidency focused on collective action for a more equitable global future.


India’s Rising Influence: G20 Summit Achievements


  • Covid pandemic, Ukraine conflict, global recession threats, high inflation, energy/food/debt crises.

Human-Centric Approach

  • Prioritized diversity and inclusivity.
  • Madhubani painting (GI-tagged art form) showcased India’s cultural heritage.

Landmark Initiatives

  • Launched India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC) and Global Biofuel Alliance.
  • Jan Bhagidari initiative involved citizens globally across 37 areas.

State & Whole-of-Government Approach

  • Over 200 G20 meetings across India, involving each state.
  • Transformed G20 into a “People’s G20” with over 1.5 crore citizen participation.

Outcomes & Achievements

  • 112 outcomes and documents (double of previous presidencies).
  • New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration addressed food security, blue economy, tourism, land restoration, MSME access to information.
  • African Union included as permanent G20 member.
  • Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository and One Future Alliance launched.
  • G20 commitment to enhanced food security, nutrition, and climate action.


  • India’s leadership set the stage for a more resilient and inclusive global future.



Green Development Pact: A Sustainable Future Roadmap

G20 Focus on Sustainability

  • Climate and environment were key topics during India’s G20 Presidency.

Green Development Pact

  • Adopted through the New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration.
  • Emphasizes ecosystem restoration and tackling environmental challenges.
  • Key elements include:
    • Forest fire prevention/mitigation.
    • Remediation of mining-degraded lands.
    • Reducing land degradation by 50% by 2040.

Technology and Circular Economy

  • Importance of technology transfer, capacity building, and financing for sustainability.
  • G20 endorsed TAAP to overcome data barriers to climate investments.
  • Focus on circular economy and resource efficiency with the launch of RECEIC.

Blue Economy

  • High-Level Principles for a Sustainable and Resilient Blue/Ocean-based Economy adopted.


  • Green Development Pact implementation is expected to strengthen efforts towards SDGs.


Designing a Circular Economy World

Global Challenges

  • Growing population and resource consumption strain Earth’s capacity.
  • Urgent need for sustainable lifestyles aligned with SDG 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production).

Circular Economy Concept

  • Aims to keep materials in use for as long as possible, minimizing waste.
  • Reduces environmental and socio-economic impacts.
  • Creates opportunities for green jobs and sustainable development.

Sustainable Lifestyles

  • Two-thirds of greenhouse gas emissions come from households and lifestyles.
  • Key areas for change include mobility, housing, food choices, and new business models.

G20 and Circularity

  • G20 India adopted High-Level Principles on Lifestyles for Sustainable Development.

India’s Circular Economy Initiatives

  • Circular economy can generate a net benefit of $624 billion annually by 2050 in India.
  • Initiatives include:
    • Draft National Resource Efficiency Policy (2019).
    • Steel Scrap Recycling Policy.
    • Vehicle Scrapping Policy.
    • Sectoral action plans on circular economy.
    • EPR guidelines for plastic packaging.
  • Membership in Global Alliance on Circular Economy and Resource Efficiency (GACERE).
  • Launch of Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition.
  • Mission LiFE promotes responsible consumption and influences policies.
  • Sustainable tourism initiatives like ‘Travel for LiFE’ support circular business solutions.
  • India joined the Global Tourism Plastics Initiative (GTPI).

Nari Shakti: Women’s Empowerment

  • Nari Shakti Vandana Adhiniyam reserves 33% seats for women in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies.
  • Promotes female leadership and participation in decision-making.

Nari Shakti Progress

  • Permanent commission for women officers in Defence services.
  • Sainik schools open to girls, providing equal opportunity in military education.
  • Women can now enter the National Defence Academy (NDA).
  • First-ever deployment of women soldiers on the Line of Control (LoC).
  • India has the highest number of female pilots globally.
  • Over 100 women involved in Chandrayaan-3 mission.
  • India has the world’s highest percentage of female STEM graduates (43%).


Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) & Public Participation

G20 and DPI

  • G20 Leaders’ Declaration highlights DPI for inclusive and sustainable development.
  • India to establish a Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository (GDPIR).

Role of DPI in India

  • Aadhaar, Jan Dhan accounts, and mobile phones boosted financial inclusion.
  • JAM Trinity (Jan Dhan, Aadhaar, Mobile) increased financial inclusion from 25% to 80% in six years.

Government Programs & DPI

  • India uses DPI for G2P programs, transferring over Rs 32.29 trillion to beneficiaries.
  • UPI facilitates financial inclusion with over 10.58 billion transactions in August 2023.

India Stack & Account Aggregator

  • India Stack promotes innovation, competition, financial inclusion, and efficient public spending.
  • Account Aggregator system ensures user control over financial information.

Key DPI Initiatives

  • Digital India Initiative: As of Sep 11, 2023, BharatNet linked 202,028 Gram Panchayats with 658,685 km of optical fiber cables.
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY): As of Sep 13, 2023, PMJDY has 50.41 crore beneficiaries with Rs 20,494.18 billion in deposits.
  • Make in India: Boosts self-reliance in technology.
  • Startup India: As of May 31, 2023, India has 108 unicorns valued at $340.80 billion.
  • Smart Cities Mission: Integrates digital infrastructure components.

Other Important DPI Examples

  • Aadhaar: Enables digital services and identity verification.
  • UMANG & DigiLocker: Provide access to government services and paperless governance.
  • Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC): e-Rupee launch aligns with G20 on CBDCs.
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI): MeitY accelerates AI development in India.


  • G20 recognizes DPI’s importance for development.
  • India’s DPI success inspires other countries for a digital future.


Building a Secure and Trusted Digital Economy

G20: From Finance to Digital Focus

  • Formed in 1999 to address financial stability, agenda now includes the digital economy.
  • Digital economy contributes over 15% of global GDP (World Bank).

G20 Digital Economy Working Group

  • Focuses on DPI, security, and digital skilling.
  • Outcome Document reflects consensus on key issues.

What is Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI)?

  • Secure, interoperable systems for public/private services.
  • Built on open standards and promotes development, inclusion, and trust.
  • Respects human rights and operates within legal frameworks.

G20 Framework for DPIs in LMICs

  • Provides a roadmap for developing and deploying DPIs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
  • India’s Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository (GDIPR) aligns with this framework.
  • One Future Alliance (OFA) proposal offers support for implementing DPIs in LMICs.

Security in the Digital Economy

  • G20 emphasizes safety, security, resilience, and trust for digital transformation.
  • G20 High-Level Principles will guide businesses in building a secure digital economy.
  • Focus on protecting vulnerable populations, including children and women, from online threats.
  • G20 Toolkit on Cyber Education and Awareness helps countries address risks and ensure user safety.


  • G20 plays a key role in shaping the digital economy with a focus on DPI and security.
  • G20 Framework for LMICs and India’s initiatives promote inclusive digital transformation.
  • Emphasis on safety, resilience, and trust with the G20 Toolkit addresses potential risks.


Green Development Pact: A Sustainable Future

G20 Prioritizes Sustainability

  • India’s G20 Presidency focused on aligning economic development with ecological well-being.
  • G20 represents 2/3 of the world’s population and 85% of GDP, making its actions impactful.

Green Development Pact Adopted

  • G20 leaders acknowledge sustainability’s importance and commit to collective action.

Key Initiatives for Green Economy

  • Global Biofuel Alliance promotes clean energy solutions.
  • LiFE Mission encourages sustainable lifestyles to combat climate change.
  • EPR guidelines and circular economy efforts support a green transition.
  • Circular economy can generate jobs in various sectors.

Green Development Pact Details

  • Focuses on resource efficiency, sustainable consumption, clean energy, climate finance, blue economy principles, and disaster-resilient infrastructure.
  • Addresses development needs of the Global South for a more equitable future.
  • Commitment to ecological restoration with a target of 30% by 2030.


  • India’s G20 Presidency emphasizes the importance of sustainable development.
  • The Green Development Pact outlines a roadmap for a greener future with initiatives addressing global challenges.


Responsible AI: Innovation Meets Ethics

AI’s Transformation

  • Revolutionizing industries, decision-making, and society (data analysis, logistics, healthcare, climate change).

G20 and Responsible AI (RAI)

  • G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration emphasizes RAI with a human-centered approach.
  • Commitment to pro-innovation regulation and human capital development for AI.

Ethical Concerns

  • Gender/racial bias, copyright infringement, privacy violations, and misuse in defense/cybersecurity.
  • Deepfakes create challenges with verifying synthetic media.

The Framework of RAI

  • Designing and deploying AI responsibly to benefit society fairly.
  • India’s focus on RAI since 2018 with NITI Aayog’s seven principles.
  • NASSCOM embedded these principles in India’s first RAI Hub and Toolkit (2022).

India’s Leadership in RAI

  • Chairs the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI).
  • Contributes to RAI development through the Responsible AI working group.
  • Hosting the 2023 GPAI Summit addresses underrepresentation of the Global South.


  • G20’s commitment and India’s leadership reflect efforts to navigate AI’s potential while addressing ethical challenges.


India’s Renewable Energy Transition

Why the Transition?

  • India’s large population and growing economy demand a sustainable energy supply.
  • Shift from fossil fuels reduces environmental impact and improves public health.

Steps Taken

  • Policies and Schemes: National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), National Solar Mission (2010).
  • Increased Renewable Share: Target of 500 GW by 2030, 172 GW installed by FY 2023 (22.5% of energy mix).
  • Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) & Energy Storage Obligation (ESO) promote renewable energy consumption.
  • Green Energy Corridor ensures power transmission for renewable projects.

Additional Initiatives

  • Solar Parks, PM-KUSUM, and Rooftop Solar (RTS) schemes to increase solar capacity.
  • National Green Hydrogen Mission (NGHM) targets 5 MMTPA production by 2030.
  • Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme for renewable energy manufacturing.
  • Suryamitra, Vayumitra, Jal-Urjamitra programs for skill development in the sector.


  • Intermittency of renewable energy sources creates grid management issues.
  • Upgrading grid infrastructure requires significant investments.
  • Land availability, state compliance with RPO, and regulatory hurdles.


  • Economic growth, job creation, technology innovation, and foreign investment.
  • Reduced reliance on fossil fuel imports improves energy security.
  • Lower carbon emissions, reduced pollution, and improved public health.


  • India’s commitment to renewable energy with policies, schemes, and international initiatives addresses climate change and ensures a sustainable energy future.


Professor MS Swaminathan: The Father of the Indian Green Revolution

Focus on Agriculture

  • Article highlights Prof MS Swaminathan’s role in India’s agricultural development.
  • Emphasizes job-led growth and sustainable practices in agriculture.
  • Advocates for acknowledging agriculture’s central role in national development.

Productivity and Exports

  • Maximize crop productivity instead of expanding agricultural land.
  • Focus on quality like Basmati rice for increased exports.
  • Utilize India’s vast rice-cultivating areas for exports.

Crop Rotation and Stubble Burning

  • Address stubble burning in Punjab from rice-wheat crop rotation.
  • Introduce early-harvesting rice varieties to avoid overlap with wheat planting.
  • Consider both rice and wheat yields for a holistic approach in crop rotation.

Prof Swaminathan’s Legacy

  • His insights provide valuable recommendations for sustainable agriculture.
  • The interview excerpts pay tribute to his lasting influence.

Rice Bio Parks

  • Establish rice bio parks to utilize all parts of the rice plant for economic value.
  • Encourage farmers to adopt sustainable practices through economic benefits.

Combating Stubble Burning

  • Stubble burning linked to lack of perceived economic value.
  • Purchase stubble for cattle feed in neighboring states due to its nutritional value.
  • Provide technology to convert rice straw into valuable products.
  • Disseminate information on the economic value of stubble to deter burning.

Climate Change and Renewable Energy

  • Promote renewable energy sources like agriculture.
  • Advocate for behavioral change at household and institutional levels.
  • Establish climate management societies in every Panchayat.
  • Public education is a collective responsibility to combat climate change.


  • Prof Swaminathan’s vision promotes sustainable agriculture, climate resilience, and collective action.
  • His guidance leads India towards a future where agriculture coexists with the environment.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *