October 2023 : Yojana Magazine GIST : Micro Notes or Revision Notes : Yojana Magazine Summary


 G20 for the Planet, People, Peace, and Prosperity

India’s G20 Presidency

  • Landmark achievement, championing climate and development agendas.
  • “One Earth, One Family, One Future” theme.
  • New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration (NDLD) with 83 paragraphs and no dissent.
  • Shift from conflict to development and cooperation.
  • Focus on policy coherence, predictable trade, and sustainable development.

Accelerating Progress on SDGs

  • Only 12% of SDG targets on track, 30% stagnated or regressed since 2015.
  • COVID-19 recovery challenges include high inflation, tight monetary policies, and debt distress.
  • G20’s endorsement of Data for Development (D4D) principles for progress.
  • G20 Deccan High-Level Principles on Food Security and Nutrition 2023.
  • Promotion of millets for global food and nutrition security.
  • Global Initiative on Digital Health to address evolving health challenges.
  • “G20 2023 Action Plan to Accelerate Progress on the SDGs” promotes equitable and sustainable growth.

Green Development Pact, Climate Finance, and Mission LiFE

  • Green Development Pact – A roadmap for addressing the environmental crisis.
  • G20 leaders committed to environmentally sustainable and inclusive economic growth.
  • Aligning Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) with Paris Agreement goals.
  • High-Level Principles (HLPs) on hydrogen, critical minerals, biofuels alliance, and renewable energy.
  • Emphasis on healthy ecosystems to address climate change, biodiversity loss, and pollution.
  • Mission LiFE (Lifestyle for Environment) – Promotes sustainable practices.
  • Ambitious climate finance goals:
    • New Collective Quantified Goal (NCQG) by 2024 (starting at £100 billion).
    • Doubling adaptation finance compared to 2019 levels by 2025.
  • Importance of better, larger, and more effective Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs).
  • One Future Alliance supports Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) with climate action.

Gender Equality and Empowering Women

  • Establishment of the Women’s Working Group under the Brazilian Presidency.

The Voice of the Global South

  • Advocated for permanent African Union (AU) membership in the G20.
  • “Voice of the Global South Summit” with 125 countries and 18 Heads of State.
  • Focus on issues like MDB reform, digital public infrastructure (DPI), and climate action.


  • India’s G20 Presidency emphasized collective action, people-centric development, and a more equitable global future.

About G20

  • Premier forum for international economic cooperation.
  • Represents 85% of global GDP, 75% of global trade, and two-thirds of the world population.
  • India held the presidency from December 2022 to November 2023.


India’s Rising Influence

G20’s Significance

  • Represents 85% of global GDP, 75% of global trade, and two-thirds of the world population.

India’s G20 Presidency in Challenging Times

  • Held during COVID-19 pandemic and Ukraine conflict.
  • Prioritized a human-centric and democratic approach.

Extensive Citizen Engagement

  • Over 200 G20 meetings across India.
  • Over 1.5 crore citizens participated through “Jan Bhagidari” events.

New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration: A Milestone

  • Adopted despite geopolitical divisions within the G20.
  • Showcases India’s footprint on key issues.

India’s Leadership on Global Issues

  • Secured consensus on ambitious solutions.
  • Priorities aligned with domestic priorities:
    • Climate action
    • Digital public infrastructure
    • Sustainable development
    • Inclusive governance

Key Achievements

  • Advocated for permanent African Union membership in the G20 (accepted).
  • Created a Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository.
  • G20 committed to food security through “Millets and other Ancient Grains International Research Initiative (MAHARISHI)”.

India’s Proactive Approach

  • Launched new initiatives: Startup 20, Disaster Relief Reduction Group, Cyber Security meetings.


  • India’s leadership led to a transformative era of cooperation.
  • India’s rise as a global leader reflects its commitment to a better world.


 Green Development Pact

Green Development Pact for a Sustainable Future

  • Signed at the 18th G20 Summit in New Delhi (September 9-10, 2023).
  • Focuses on environmentally sustainable development and inclusive economic growth.
  • Addresses climate challenges faced by vulnerable communities.

Aligned with the Paris Agreement

  • Aims to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
  • Requires ambitious action on climate finance, cooperation, and sustainable consumption/production.

Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  • Pact recognizes a 43% reduction in global emissions by 2030 (compared to 2019 levels) is necessary.
  • Developed nations to support developing nations with climate finance for peaking emissions.

Strengthening Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

  • Urges nations to review and strengthen their NDCs (climate action plans under Paris Agreement).
  • G20 leaders committed to a successful “global stocktake” at COP28 to assess progress.

Commitment to Carbon Neutrality

  • G20 leaders aim to achieve net-zero emissions and carbon neutrality by 2050.
  • Strategies include a circular carbon economy and socio-economic/technological development.

Lifestyles for Sustainable Development (LiFE)

  • Leaders committed to mainstreaming LiFE to achieve significant emission reductions by 2030.
  • Aims for a circular economy promoting sustainable consumption/production and decoupling growth from environmental degradation.

Disaster Risk Reduction

  • G20 to support developing countries in disaster risk reduction and building climate resilience in infrastructure.


 Designing a Circular Economy World

Circular Economy Explained

  • System where materials stay in use, minimizing waste and pollution.
  • Achieved through maintenance, reuse, refurbishment, remanufacture, recycling, composting.
  • Reduces environmental impact of consumption and production.
  • Aligns with Sustainable Development Goal 12 on Responsible Consumption and Production.

Importance of Sustainable Lifestyles

  • Key to achieving climate and nature goals.
  • Focus areas: mobility, housing/energy use, diet/food, new business models.

The Global Problem of Waste

  • Every second, the equivalent of a truckload of clothes (worth $460 billion) is thrown away globally.

India’s Potential in Circular Economy

  • Transition can generate a net benefit of $624 billion annually by 2050.
  • Boosts green jobs: could create 6 million jobs globally.

India’s Initiatives

  • Draft National Resource Efficiency Policy (2019).
  • Steel Scrap Recycling Policy.
  • Vehicle Scrapping Policy.
  • Extended Producers Responsibility (EPR) on plastic packaging.
  • Membership in Global Alliance on Circular Economy and Resource Efficiency (GACERE).
  • Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition.
  • Mission LiFE promoting responsible consumption, responsive markets, and supportive policies.
  • ‘Travel for Life’ program encouraging sustainable tourism practices.

Tools and Frameworks for Circularity

  • Provided by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP):
    • Life Cycle Initiative
    • Global Opportunities for Sustainable Development Goals (GO4SDGs)
    • International Resource Panel (IRP)
    • 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production
    • Sustainable Consumption and Production Hotspots Analysis Tool (SCP-HAT)

Overall Goal

  • Improve quality of life for present and future generations through sustainable consumption and production.


 Digital Public Infrastructure & Public Participation

Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI)

  • Defined: Open technology platforms for public services (e.g., digital ID, payment systems).
  • Importance: Enables digital transformation and improves public service delivery.
  • Components:
    • Networked open standards
    • Enabling governance
    • Competitive market participation

India’s DPI Initiatives

  • Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository (GDPIR): A digital storage for DPI solutions.
  • JAM Trinity (Jan Dhan + Aadhaar + Mobile): Increased financial inclusion from 25% to 80% in 6 years.
  • Government-to-Person (G2P) programs: Utilizing DPI for efficient service delivery.
  • Unified Payments Interface (UPI): Enables instant and widespread digital payments (>10 billion transactions monthly).
  • UPI-Pay Now linking: Enables faster, cheaper cross-border payments with 11 countries.

Key DPI Programs

  • Digital India & BharatNet Project: Bridging the digital divide through infrastructure and literacy.
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY): Financial inclusion scheme with over 500 million beneficiaries.
  • Make in India: Promotes domestic production of electronic and digital goods.
  • Startup India: Fosters entrepreneurship and innovation in digital technologies.
  • Smart Cities Mission: Integrating digital infrastructure across 100 Indian cities.
  • Aadhaar: Provides digital identity verification for various services.
  • UMANG App & DigiLocker: Secure platforms for accessing government services.
  • Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC): Exploring implications for cross-border payments.
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI): Initiatives for responsible AI development.


  • India’s DPI initiatives (Aadhaar, JAM Trinity) have accelerated financial inclusion and set a benchmark for digital transformation.


 Energy Transition in India

Why the Shift?

  • Burning fossil fuels contributes to global warming, air pollution, and health problems.

India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) Launched in 2008

  • Established framework for sustainable development goals.

National Solar Mission (2010): A Success Story

  • Initial target: 20 GW solar capacity by 2022 (achieved).
  • Increased target: 100 GW solar capacity by 2022 (achieved 172 GW).
  • India’s ranking: 4th globally in installed renewable energy capacity.
  • India’s ranking: 5th globally in solar installed capacity.

Other Solar Energy Promotion Schemes

  • Solar Parks Scheme (target: 40 GW)
  • Pradhan Mantri KUSUM Scheme (target: 30.8 GW)
  • Rooftop Solar Phase-2 Scheme (target: 4 GW)
  • National Green Hydrogen Mission (target: 5 MMTPA by 2030)

Challenges of Renewable Energy

  • Intermittent nature of solar and wind power.
  • Balancing electricity supply and demand.
  • Integrating renewables into the grid requires upgrades.
  • Energy storage limitations (batteries, pumped hydro).

Challenges in Implementing RE Programs

  • Land availability for RE projects.
  • State compliance with Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO).
  • Timely tariff adoption by State Electricity Regulatory Commissions.
  • Avoiding additional state charges on renewable energy.
  • Transmission infrastructure limitations.

Economic and Environmental Benefits

  • Job creation, technological innovation, foreign investment.
  • Enhanced energy security, reduced dependence on fossil fuel imports.
  • Reduced carbon emissions, improved air quality, public health benefits.

India’s Panchamrit Commitments at COP26

  • Five commitments to address climate change.


  • India’s transition to renewable energy is key to a sustainable future.
  • India’s leadership inspires other nations in the fight against climate change.


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