Daily Current Affairs

Prelims Exam


1.World Press Freedom Index 2024

  • World Press Freedom Index 2024 by Reporters Without Borders (RSF)
  • Ranks 180 countries on press freedom for journalists.
  • Overall decline in press freedom globally by 7.6 points.
  • Norway ranked 1st, Eritrea ranked last.
  • India’s rank improved from 161 (2023) to 159 (2024).
  • India’s score worsened in all but the security indicator.
  • India ranks behind Turkey (158), Pakistan (152), Sri Lanka (150).


2.Combating Drug-Resistant Bacteria: Hope from Cow-Derived Peptides

New Therapy:

  • Scientists develop promising treatment using cow-derived peptides.
  • Targets drug-resistant bacteria causing severe infections.
  • Offers alternative to conventional antibiotics.


  • Chains of amino acids found naturally in the body.
  • Amino acids linked by peptide bonds.

Peptides vs. Proteins:

  • Both are essential cell components with vital functions.
  • Key difference: length.
    • Peptides: Typically 2-50 amino acids.
    • Proteins: Long molecules formed from multiple peptide subunits.
  • Peptides have less defined structures than proteins.
  • Proteins can be broken down into peptides by enzymes.

Peptide Functions:

  • Diverse functions, including:
    • Pro-aging support
    • Anti-inflammatory properties
    • Muscle building
    • Acting as hormones
  • Peptide supplements available due to potential health benefits.

Amino Acids:

  • Building blocks of proteins (and life).
  • 20 different types exist.
  • Proteins are chains of amino acids (polypeptides).
  • Some amino acids are made by the body, others are essential and must be obtained from food (9 essential amino acids).


3. 2nd India-Nigeria Joint Trade Committee Meeting:


    • Focus areas identified to boost bilateral trade and investment.
    • Resolving market access issues for both countries.
    • Cooperation in key sectors:
      • Oil & Gas
      • Pharmaceuticals
      • UPI & Local Currency Settlement System
      • Power & Renewable Energy
      • Agriculture & Food Processing
      • Education, Transport, Railways, Aviation
      • MSMEs
    • Early conclusion of Local Currency Settlement System Agreement planned.
  • India-Nigeria Relations:
    • Important partners in South-South Cooperation.
    • Close collaboration in multilateral organizations (UN, G77, NAM).
    • Diplomatic ties since 1958 (India’s embassy established before Nigeria’s independence).
    • India as a development partner:
      • Concessional loans
      • Capacity building programs
    • Nigeria: 2nd largest trading partner for India in Africa.
    • Bilateral trade: $7.89 billion in 2023-24 (down from $11.8 billion in 2022-23).
    • Indian investments in Nigeria: $27 billion across various sectors.



  • Issue: Delhi High Court raises concern over continued use of Oxytocin in dairies, calling it animal cruelty.
  • What is Oxytocin:
    • Naturally occurring hormone in mammals.
    • Misused in cattle to increase milk production, harming both animals and consumers.
  • Ban: Indian government banned Oxytocin in 2018 due to its misuse.


5.Swell Waves

  • Forecast: Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) predicts swell waves hitting Indian coasts.
  • What are Swell Waves:
    • High waves formed by distant storms (like hurricanes), not local winds.
    • Huge energy transfer from air to water during storms creates these waves.
    • Can travel thousands of kilometers before reaching shore.
    • Example: March 2024 Kerala floods caused by swell waves (called Kallakkadal locally).
  • Forecasting: INCOIS launched the Swell Surge Forecast System in 2020 for early warnings (7 days in advance).


6.Eta Aquariid Meteor Shower:

Active Period: April 15 – May 28, peaking on May 5 & 6, 2024.

  • Speed: Meteors travel at a high speed of ~148,000 mph (66 km/s), leaving glowing trails.
  • Origin: Caused by Earth passing through the debris trail of Halley’s Comet.
  • Viewing: Best seen in the pre-dawn hours.
  • Visibility:
    • Southern Hemisphere: Ideal viewing location with up to 40 meteors per hour.
    • Northern Hemisphere: Lower visibility with around 10 meteors per hour.

Where Do Meteors Come From?

  • Meteors are leftover particles from comets and broken asteroids.
  • When Earth passes through a comet’s dust trail, the debris interacts with the atmosphere, burning up and creating the meteor shower.

Did you know?

  • Halley’s Comet orbits the Sun every 76 years.
  • Last seen in 1986, it won’t return to the inner solar system until 2061.
  • Discovered by Edmund Halley in 1705, it’s one of the most famous comets.

7.GI Tag to Kutch Ajrakh

  • News: Ajrakh from Kutch receives GI tag from the Controller General of Patents, Designs, and Trademarks (CGPDTM).
  • About Ajrakh:
    • “Ajrakh” derived from “Azrak” meaning indigo (primary dye used).
    • Traditional textile craft from Gujarat (Sindh, Barmer, Kutch regions).
    • Intricate hand-block printing on specially treated cotton fabric.
    • Designs hold symbolism and historical significance.
    • Introduced over 400 years ago by Sindhi Muslims.
    • Popular attire among nomadic communities like Rabaris, Maldharis, Ahirs.

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