Daily Current Affairs

Prelims Exam

Revision Notes 


1.Rabindranath Tagore

  • Bengali polymath – poet, writer, philosopher, novelist
  • Born: May 7, 1861
  • Son of Debendranath Tagore, leader of Brahmo Samaj (Hindu reform movement)
  • Honored Mahatma Gandhi with title “Mahatma” (Gandhiji called him “Gurudev”)


  • First non-European to win Nobel Prize in Literature (for “Gitanjali”)
  • Influential artist and musician
  • Composed national anthems of India and Bangladesh
  • Founded Visva-Bharati University (Shantiniketan)
  • Opposed Jallianwala Bagh massacre, returned knighthood

Died: August 7, 1941



2.Areca Nut (Betel Nut)

Cash crop of India

  • Seed of the Areca palm (Areca catechu L.)
  • 4th most common psychoactive substance globally (after caffeine, nicotine, alcohol)
  • Key ingredient in smokeless tobacco preparations
  • Chewed by 600 million people globally, esp. in South Asia (India, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Pakistan)
  • Cultivation requirements:
    • Abundant, well-distributed rainfall
    • 14-36°C temperature range
    • Laterite, red loam, alluvial soils
  • Major cultivating states: Karnataka, Kerala, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Meghalaya, West Bengal
  • Recent discovery: Areca Research Centre at Shivamogga found Tirthahalli region to have the best quality Areca nut in Karnataka


Science and Tech

3.Fusobacterium nucleatum

  • Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium that is commonly found in the human oral cavity.
  • In the oral cavity, F. nucleatum is considered a ‘bridging’ organism that can flourish and, along with other microbes, trigger inflammation leading to gum, or periodontal, disease.
  • F. nucleatum is rarely seen in the guts of healthy people. However, in cases of colorectal cancer, the bacteria are found in tumours in the gut, where they help cancer cells escape from the immune system and spread to other parts of the body.
  • Researchers have observed a notably higher abundance of Fusobacterium nucleatum bacteria in oral tumors compared to the oral cavity of healthy individuals.

Additional information:

  • F. nucleatum is an obligate anaerobe, meaning it can only survive in an environment without oxygen.
  • F. nucleatum is a rod-shaped bacterium.
  • F. nucleatum is a member of the Fusobacteriaceae family of bacteria.

Here are some of the potential dangers of F. nucleatum:

  • F. nucleatum can contribute to gum disease.
  • F. nucleatum may play a role in the development of colorectal cancer.
  • F. nucleatum may also be involved in other health problems, such as heart disease and preterm birth.


4.Chloropicrin: Chemical Weapon and Pesticide

Why in News?

  • Accusation: The U.S. State Department accuses Russia of using chloropicrin against Ukraine, violating the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).

About Chloropicrin:

  • Dual-use chemical: Used as a warfare agent and pesticide.
  • Health risks: Inhalation poses health risks.
  • Other names: Nitrochloroform.
  • Uses:
    • Antimicrobial agent
    • Herbicide
    • Nematicide
  • Manufacturing:
    • Reaction between sodium hypochlorite (bleach) and nitromethane.
    • Combination of chloroform and nitric acid.
  • Historical Use: Used as a poison gas in World War I by both sides.

Health Concerns:

  • Irritating and tear-inducing.
  • Highly toxic and carcinogenic.
  • Induces vomiting, leading to mask removal and increased gas exposure.

Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC):

  • International treaty to eliminate chemical weapons.
  • Adopted in 1992, entered into force in 1997.
  • 193 member states.
  • Mandates destruction of old and abandoned chemical weapons.
  • India signed the treaty in 1993.

Tear Gas:

  • Also accused by the U.S. of being used by Russia in violation of CWC.
  • Collective term for lachrymatory agents (causing tears).
  • Examples: Pepper spray, bromoacetone.




Why in News?

  • An Orangutan named Rakus in Indonesia used a medicinal plant (Akar Kuning) to treat a wound.

About Orangutans:

  • Meaning: “Man of the forest” in Malay.
  • Characteristics:
    • Ape-like shape, shaggy reddish fur.
    • Grasping hands and feet.
    • Largest arboreal mammal (spending most of their time in trees).
    • Closest living relative to humans (sharing 96.4% genes).
  • Species:
    • Bornean Orangutan
    • Sumatran Orangutan
    • Tapanuli Orangutan (differ slightly in appearance and behavior).
  • Habitat and Distribution:
    • Found on Borneo and Sumatra islands only.
    • Up to 1,500m above sea level (mostly in lowlands, preferring river valleys/floodplains).
  • Diet:
    • Mainly fruits (mangoes, lychees, figs).
    • Young leaves, flowers, insects, and even small mammals.
  • Conservation Status:
    • All three species are CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (IUCN Red List).
  • Importance:
    • Nicknamed “gardeners of the forest” for seed dispersal and maintaining forest health.
    • Crucial for ecosystems and other animals (tigers, elephants, rhinos).
  • Threats:
    • Deforestation and hunting.


6.Hippos (Hippopotamus amphibius)

  • Large semi-aquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Second heaviest land animal after elephant (1,500 – 1,800 kg).
  • High-set eyes, ears, and nostrils for underwater visibility.
  • Vulnerable conservation status (IUCN Red List).

Threats: Hunting and habitat loss.



7.GST Appellate Tribunal (GSTAT) 

Why in News?

  • Union Finance Minister inaugurates GSTAT with Justice (Retd.) Sanjaya Kumar Mishra as President.

About GSTAT:

  • Established under Central GST Act, 2017.
  • Specialized authority for resolving GST disputes at appellate level.
  • Second appeal forum for GST cases.
  • First common forum for dispute resolution between Centre and States.
  • Structure:
    • Principal Bench (New Delhi)
    • 31 State Benches across India (as approved by GST Council).


  • Faster, fairer resolution of GST disputes.
  • Reduces burden on higher courts.
  • Enhances effectiveness of GST system.
  • Promotes transparency and efficiency in tax environment.

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