Daily Current Affairs

Prelims Exam


1.Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)

Why in News ?

  • Positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) event, also called Indian Niño, may re-emerge for the second year in a row (later half of 2024).
  • This would be the first time since record-keeping began in 1960.

About IOD:

  • Climate pattern in the Indian Ocean causing fluctuations in sea surface temperatures.
  • Positive IOD: Warm water pushed to the western Indian Ocean, cold water brought up in the eastern Indian Ocean (reversed during negative IOD).


  • Influences local weather, causing heavy rains/droughts in Africa and Australia.
  • Affects sea levels, leading to potential coastal flooding.
  • Positive IOD:
    • Can boost rainfall in India and Africa (depending on development time).
    • Reduce rainfall in Australia, Southeast Asia, and Indonesia.


Impact on India:

  • Positive IOD can strengthen India’s southwest monsoon, depending on development.
    • Example: 2019 IOD event (late monsoon season) compensated for a 30% June rainfall deficit.
  • May benefit Indian agriculture by:
    • Boosting crop yields.
    • Recharging reservoirs and water sources.


2.Shinkun La Tunnel Project

Project: Construction of Shinkun La Tunnel by Border Roads Organisation (BRO)

Location: Under 16,580 ft Shinku-La pass, connecting Himachal’s Lahaul valley and Ladakh’s Zanskar valley (Nimu-Padam-Darcha road link)

Key Features:

  • Length: 4.1 km (longest high-altitude highway tunnel upon completion)
  • Cost: Rs. 1,681.5 crore
  • Benefits:
    • All-weather road connectivity to Ladakh
    • Shortest route to Ladakh’s borders
    • Streamlined transportation to strategic locations (Kargil, Siachen, LOC) – reduces travel distance by 100 km
    • Reduced vulnerability to shelling/missile attacks

Border Roads Organisation (BRO):

  • Established: May 7, 1960
  • Purpose: Secure borders, develop infrastructure in remote areas
  • Activities: Develops & maintains road networks in border areas and neighboring countries (19 states, 3 UTs in India, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Myanmar, Tajikistan, Sri Lanka)
  • Staff: Officers from General Reserve Engineer Force (GREF) and Indian Army Corps of Engineers
  • Motto: Shramena Sarvam Sadhyam (Everything is achievable through hardwork)


3.Pyrenees Mountains

The Pyrenees mountains are a mountain range that separates Spain and France.

  • Location: Southwestern Europe
  • Border: Natural border between Spain and France
  • Formation: Fold mountain chain created by continental collision
  • Age: Quite old mountains in comparison to the Alps
  • Length: 500 km (310 mi)
  • Easternmost point: Width of 6 miles
  • Central width: 80 miles
  • Political division: Spanish Pyrenees and French Pyrenees
  • Country within Pyrenees: Andorra
  • Western end: Merges with Cantabrian Mountains
  • Highest peak: Aneto Peak (Spain, 3,404 meters)

The Pyrenees are a beautiful mountain range with a rich history. The recent meeting between the French and Chinese presidents highlights the importance of international relations.



4.Drip Pricing

Why in News ?

  • The Department of Consumer Affairs warned about ‘drip pricing,’ a strategy that surprises consumers with hidden charges.

What is Drip Pricing?

  • A pricing strategy where only part of an item’s price is advertised upfront.
  • The total cost is revealed gradually during the purchase process.
  • Commonly used in hospitality and travel (e.g., advertised hotel rate excludes resort fees, taxes).

Impact on Consumers:

  • Makes price comparison difficult.
  • Hinders consumers from making informed decisions due to hidden costs.
  • Disadvantage for transparent sellers who disclose all charges upfront.


5.Meditech Stackathon 2024

Why In News ?

  • Launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals with the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII).


  • Address critical challenges in medical technology (MedTech).
  • Foster domestic manufacturing of medical devices.
  • Reduce India’s import dependence.
  • Position India as a global leader in MedTech.

India’s MedTech Industry:

  • Currently the 4th largest market for medical devices in Asia.
  • Ranks among the top 20 globally.
  • Expected to reach USD 50 billion by 2030 (from current USD 14 billion).

Confederation of Indian Industry (CII):

  • Founded in 1895.
  • Non-profit industry association.
  • Works with government and businesses to improve efficiency and competitiveness.



6.Tactical Nuclear Weapons

Why In News ?

  • Russia’s recent tactical nuclear weapons drills near Ukraine raise concerns.

What are Tactical Nuclear Weapons?

  • Designed for use on the battlefield during military operations.
  • Smaller and shorter-range than strategic nuclear weapons.
  • Delivered by missiles, bombs, or artillery shells.
  • Not limited by major power arms control agreements.


  • US has around 230 non-strategic nuclear weapons, including 100 B61 bombs in Europe.
  • Russia has an estimated 1,000 to 2,000 tactical nuclear warheads.



7.West Nile Fever in Kerala

Kerala Situation:

  • Recent reports from Kerala’s health department indicate West Nile fever cases in three districts.

About West Nile Fever:

  • Caused by the West Nile Virus (WNV) from the Flaviviridae family.
  • Birds are natural hosts, commonly found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America.
  • First identified in Uganda’s West Nile district in 1937.


  • Spread primarily through infected mosquito bites (mosquitoes acquire WNV from infected birds).
  • No evidence of direct human-to-human transmission.
  • Rare cases of transmission through organ transplants have been reported.


  • Most infected people show no symptoms (asymptomatic).
  • Possible symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, body aches, nausea, vomiting, occasional rash, and swollen lymph nodes.
  • Severe cases (neuroinvasive disease) can cause severe headaches, high fever, neck stiffness, confusion, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, and paralysis.


  • No specific medicine or vaccine available.
  • Treatment focuses on supportive care, including hospitalization, fluids, respiratory support, and preventing secondary infections.


Science and Technology

8.LockBit Ransomware and US Indictment

Why in News ?

  • US Department of Justice indicts Russian national Dmitry Yuryevich Khoroshev for involvement with LockBit ransomware.
  • $10 million reward offered for information leading to his arrest.

About LockBit Ransomware:

  • Malicious software that blocks user access to computer systems and demands ransom for decryption.
  • Formerly known as “ABCD” ransomware.
  • Targets enterprises and government organizations (not individuals).
  • Operates as Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS).
  • Developing Mac-targeting encryptors for the first time.

How it Works:

  • Self-spreading malware – infects other devices within a network after initial infiltration.
  • Hides encryption files as PNG images to bypass detection.
  • Uses phishing and social engineering to trick victims into sharing credentials.
  • Encrypts data across devices and disables security programs to prevent recovery.


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