Daily Current Affairs

To The Point Notes


1.Subansiri River

Why in News ?

  • A fisheries management plan will be implemented at the Subansiri Lower Hydro Electric Project (SLHEP) on the Subansiri River.

About Subansiri River:

  • Major tributary of the Brahmaputra River.
  • Also known as the “Gold River” due to gold deposits found in its riverbed.
  • Flows through Tibet, Arunachal Pradesh, and Assam.
  • Major tributaries: Laro, Nye, Yume, Tsari, and Kamla.



Science and Technology

2.Facial Authentication Technology

Increased Adoption by Pensioners:

  • Over 6.6 lakh pensioners in India used facial authentication in 2023-24, a 200% rise from the previous year.

What is Facial Authentication Technology?

  • Biometric technology using facial features for identity verification.
  • Compares a live scan to a stored digital face template.
  • Uses sophisticated sensors, computer vision, AI, and biometrics modelling.


  1. Face Detection: Locates the face in an image or video.
  2. Analysis and Mapping: Creates a digital map of facial features.
  3. Encrypted Faceprint Creation: Generates a unique, encrypted facial signature.
  4. Biometric Authentication: Compares live scan to stored faceprint.

Key Point:

  • Facial authentication is different from facial recognition (identifying unknown individuals).
  • It’s a 1:1 verification using biometrics, while facial recognition is 1:n identification.


  • Enterprises: Secure access to corporate systems.
  • Data Centers: Enhanced security protocols.
  • Healthcare: Safeguarding access to narcotics.
  • Financial Services: Customer identification.
  • Education: Secure access to campus facilities.
  • Utilities: Securing critical infrastructure.




3.Przewalski’s Horses

Back to the Wild:

Przewalski’s horses, a wild horse species native to the Kazakh steppes, have been reintroduced to their homeland.

Unique Equine Breed:

  • Never been domesticated.
  • Last truly wild horses native to Central Asia.
  • Named after Russian explorer Nikolai Przewalski.

Conservation Success Story:

  • Reintroduction efforts began in the 1990s.
  • Over 500 horses now roam free in Mongolia, with populations in China and Kazakhstan.
  • IUCN status changed from “Extinct in the Wild” to “Endangered” in 2011.



Polity & Governance

4.Agnipath Scheme

Context: The Agnipath scheme offers youth a 4-year stint in the armed forces, facing criticism for a “lesser” cadre and fixed-term service.

About Agnipath Scheme (2022):

  • Goal: Attract youth, enhance force age profile, and provide short-term service opportunities.
  • Eligibility: 17.5-21 years old (subject to change).
  • Service Period: 4 years (Agniveers).
  • Permanent Cadre Selection: After 4 years, Agniveers can apply for permanent positions (25% selected based on merit).

Financial Package:

  • Annual Salary: Starts at Rs. 4.76 Lakhs, increasing to Rs. 6.92 Lakhs in year 4.
  • Allowances: Risk & Hardship, Ration, Dress, Travel.
  • Seva Nidhi: Unique savings scheme with 30% salary contribution from Agniveer matched by government. Accumulates to Rs. 10.04 Lakhs over 4 years (tax-exempt).

Benefits and Support:

  • Life Insurance: Rs. 48 Lakhs non-contributory policy.
  • Death in Service: Additional Rs. 44 Lakhs ex-gratia payment to family.
  • Disability Compensation: One-time payment based on disability severity (Rs. 44 Lakhs for 100% to Rs. 15 Lakhs for 50%).



International Relations

5.Unrest in New Caledonia

Kanak Independence Movement:

  • Kanaks, indigenous people of New Caledonia (43% population), seek independence from France.
  • Tensions rose after French parliament amended the voter list, allowing long-term residents (mostly pro-French) to vote.
  • Kanaks fear this dilutes their electoral power and marginalizes them in their own homeland.

Historical Context:

  • France colonized New Caledonia in 1853, marginalizing the Kanaks.
  • Post-WWII, Kanaks gained French citizenship but French migration made them a minority.
  • The Kanak independence movement (FLNKS) emerged in 1984.
  • The Matignon Agreements (1988) and Nouméa Accord (1998) granted partial autonomy and three referendums on independence.

Failed Independence Referendums:

  • Pro-French results in 2018 and 2020 referendums.
  • Kanak request to postpone the 2021 referendum due to COVID-19 disregarded by France.
  • Low Kanak turnout led to a 96% vote against independence, fueling anger.

Kanak Grievances:

  • “Settler colonialism” post-WWII led to social and economic inequalities.
  • Kanaks remain marginalized in mining sectors with limited political power.
  • 2019 census showed high poverty rates among Kanaks.

French Concerns:

  • Tactical peace: Violence threatens French citizens and President Macron’s reputation.
  • Indo-Pacific Strategy: New Caledonia is crucial for France’s claim as an Indo-Pacific power.
  • Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ): France’s overseas territories create the world’s second largest EEZ.
  • Strategic Location: New Caledonia counters China’s influence in the Indo-Pacific.


  • France needs to address Kanak grievances to achieve lasting peace and maintain its Indo-Pacific presence.



Science & Technology

6.Horse Domestication

New Study Unravels Horse Domestication Mystery:

  • A groundbreaking study sheds light on horse domestication through ancient & modern horse genomes (published in Nature).
  • Previously debated timeline reveals horses were domesticated twice, not once.

Two Stages of Domestication:

  1. Central Asia (5,500 years ago): Botai culture domesticated horses for meat & milk (not widespread use).
  2. Western Russian Steppes (4,700 years ago): Led to widespread horse-based mobility across Eurasia (foundation for modern horses).

Horses: A Transformative Animal:

  • Evolutionary biologist Pablo Librado: “Horse domestication changed history, but no other animal was as influential.”
  • Horses shaped civilizations: Genghis Khan’s empire, agriculture, transportation.

Study Findings:

  • First Domestication: Przewalski’s horses (Mongolia) descend from this meat/milk focused effort.
  • Second Domestication & Breeding:
    • Began around 4,700 years ago.
    • Widespread horse mobility emerged around 4,200 years ago.
    • Shift in breeding practices for desired traits (docility) indicated by shorter generation time (4 vs 8 years).
    • Close-kin mating suggests deliberate selection by breeders.

Horse-Based Mobility & Its Impact:

  • Revolutionized communication, trade, and warfare across Europe and Asia.
  • Chariots and cavalry redefined warfare, shaping empires.
  • Spoke-wheeled chariots, lighter than wagons, transformed transportation & warfare.

Reassessing Human Migrations:

  • New evidence suggests horses weren’t used in Indo-European migrations (3,000 BC) as previously thought.


  • Horse domestication significantly impacted human history by revolutionizing mobility, communication, trade, and warfare.


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