Prelims Exam 


1.Parliamentary Candidate Requirements

  • Constitution (Article 84):
    • Citizen of India
    • Minimum age: 25 years (Lok Sabha) & 30 years (Rajya Sabha)
    • May be prescribed other qualifications by Parliament
  • Representation of the People Act, 1951:
    • Lok Sabha candidates must be enrolled voters in any constituency.
  • Domicile not a Criterion:Candidates can contest from multiple seats.

Science and Tech 

2.Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi)

  • Function:
    • Defines best practices for emissions reduction and net-zero targets aligned with climate science.
    • Develops standards and guides for companies and financial institutions to set science-based targets.
    • Validates companies’ and financial institutions’ targets.
  • Recent Criticism:Allowing companies to use carbon offsets to meet climate commitments.



  • Benchmark stock market index of Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE).
  • Launched in 1986.
  • Comprises 30 stocks representing India’s largest, financially sound companies.
  • Sensex value increase indicates a general rise in share prices. Conversely, a decrease suggests a general decline.
  • Reflects overall sentiment of the Indian stock market.

4. Shrinkflation 

  • Practice of companies reducing product size/quantity while keeping the price the same.
  • Example:Reducing ice cream scoops in a container or chips in a packet.
  • Causes:Rising production costs, avoiding consumer price hike sensitivity.




  • Invertebrates belonging to Cnidaria group.
  • Formed by tiny soft organisms called polyps secreting a calcium carbonate exoskeleton for protection.
  • Coral reefs are massive carbonate structures created by millions of polyps.
  • Colors:Range from red, purple, blue to brown and green (due to algae living inside polyps).
  • Types:Fringing reefs (along shorelines), barrier reefs (open water), atolls (circular reefs around sunken volcanoes).
  • Significance:
    • Provide food, shelter, breeding grounds for a quarter of marine life.
    • Support over 1 billion people through food, livelihoods, and recreation.

6.Biodegradable Straws Protect Lab-Grown Coral

  • Context:South Florida researchers use biodegradable drinking straws to prevent lab-grown coral from becoming fish food.
  • Coral Cage Design:
    • Small biodegradable cage made partly with drinking straws.
    • Consists of a limestone disc surrounded by eight vertical straws.
    • Increases transplanted coral survival rate to over 90%.

7.Carbon Offsets Explained

  • Concept:A way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the atmosphere.
  • Process:
    • Organizations/individuals purchase carbon offsets to compensate for their own emissions.
    • Offsets achieved through projects capturing/storing carbon or preventing emissions (e.g., renewable energy, reforestation).



8.Ringwoodite: Earth’s Hidden Ocean

  • Discovery:Researchers found a massive reservoir of water 700 km beneath Earth’s surface trapped within a mineral called ringwoodite.
  • Size Estimation:This subterranean ocean is estimated to hold three times the volume of all Earth’s surface oceans combined.
  • Detection Method:Scientists analyzed the speed of seismic waves from earthquakes to infer the composition of Earth’s inner layers.

Ringwoodite: The Water-Storing Mineral

  • Location:Exists in Earth’s transition zone.
  • Unique Property:Crystal structure allows it to absorb and hold significant amounts of water like a sponge.

9.Mount Etna 

  • Active stratovolcano on Sicily’s east coast (Italy’s largest island).
  • Europe’s tallest mountain south of the Alps and one of the world’s most active volcanoes.
  • Has five summit craters responsible for most eruptions.
  • Located above the convergent plate margin between the African and Eurasian Plates.
  • A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2013.
  • Recent Activity:Volcanic vortex rings emerged from a new pit crater.


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