Daily Current Affairs 

Prelims Exam 

To The Point Notes



1.Kadar Tribe & Recent Tragedy

Kadar Tribe

  • Small indigenous community in South India (Kerala & Tamil Nadu)
  • Traditional forest dwellers with deep connection to nature (“Kadar” & “Kaadu” meaning “people” & “forest”)
  • Population around 2,000, speak Dravidian languages
  • Live sustainably by collecting forest products (honey, wax, etc.)
  • Classified as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG) in Kerala

Recent Event

  • Kadar tribesman killed by elephant in Tamil Nadu’s Anamalai Tiger Reserve
  • Raises concerns about coexistence between indigenous communities and wildlife conservation

PVTGs in India

  • More vulnerable subgroup within Indian tribal communities
  • Face challenges like low literacy, limited development, dependence on hunting
  • Indian government recognizes 75 PVTG tribes and provides support programs

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/conflict-with-pachyderm-pathways/article68178685.ece



2.Venezuela Loses its Last Glacier: A Grim Milestone

Humboldt Glacier Disappears

  • Venezuela’s last glacier, the Humboldt (La Corona), has shrunk significantly and is no longer classified as a glacier according to the International Cryosphere Climate Initiative (ICCI).

About ICCI

  • Formed in 2009 to address climate change’s impact on Earth’s cryosphere (frozen regions).
  • Works with governments and organizations to preserve the cryosphere (Arctic, Antarctic, high mountains).
  • Aims to raise urgency for global action on climate change.

Humboldt Glacier – A Legacy Lost

  • Located near Venezuela’s second-highest peak (Pico Humboldt) at 4,900 meters.
  • Previously projected to last another decade, but melted much faster than expected.

What is the Cryosphere?

  • All regions on Earth where water exists in its solid form (ice or snow).

Source : https://www.downtoearth.org.in/video/climate-change/how-did-venezuela-s-humboldt-glacier-shrink-to-an-ice-field–96174



3.ETO Limits in Spices: India Pushes for Codex Standards

The Issue:

  • India has raised concerns with the CODEX committee regarding the use of Ethylene oxide (ETO) in spices.
  • ETO is a disinfectant used to control microbes but is considered carcinogenic at high levels.
  • Different countries have varying regulations for ETO use, creating confusion for exporters like India.

India’s Stance:

  • India, the world’s largest spice producer and exporter, is advocating for standardized ETO limits set by CODEX.
  • Currently, CODEX doesn’t have a specific limit or standard testing methods for ETO in spices.

CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC):

  • An intergovernmental body (founded in 1963) setting global food safety standards.
  • Established by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) and WHO (World Health Organization).
  • Aims to protect consumer health and ensure fair food trade practices.
  • India is a member country since 1964.

Possible Outcome:

  • Standardized ETO limits by CODEX could benefit Indian spice exports by ensuring clarity and compliance with international regulations.

Source : https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/spices-board-discussing-setting-of-eto-limits-with-codex/article68179578.ece



4.Tea Board of India


  • Established in 1954 to regulate the Indian tea industry and protect producer interests.
  • Administers all tea production in India, including Darjeeling, Assam, and Nilgiri varieties.


  • 32 members representing various tea industry sectors, appointed by the Indian government.
  • Head office in Kolkata with zonal offices in Jorhat (Assam) and Coonoor (Tamil Nadu).

Current Issue:

  • Tea production significantly down (40% in Assam, 23% in West Bengal) due to insufficient rainfall (as of March 2024).

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/assam/tea-body-fears-50-crop-loss-ahead/article68173533.ece



5.Kanwar Lake: Dying Paradise

Kanwar Lake:

  • Asia’s largest freshwater oxbow lake in Bihar (also called Kabartal jheel)
  • Formed by the meandering Gandak River (tributary of Ganga)
  • Important stopover for migratory birds on Central Asian Flyway (58 species)
  • Rich fish biodiversity (over 50 documented species)
  • Habitat for critically endangered species (3 vulture species, sociable lapwing, Baer’s pochard)


  • Water mismanagement – drainage, extraction, dams, canals

What is an Oxbow Lake?

  • A curved lake formed alongside a winding river due to erosion and sediment deposits
  • Crescent-shaped, common in floodplains and near rivers

Central Asian Flyway (CAF):

  • Covers a vast area between the Arctic and Indian Oceans
  • Important migration route for water birds (breeding grounds in Siberia, wintering grounds in West & South Asia)

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/bihar/begusarais-kanwar-lake-once-a-migratory-bird-paradise-now-struggles-for-survival/article68177854.ece#:~:text=struggles%20for%20survival-,Originally%20spread%20over%20nearly%207%2C000%20hectares%2C%20the%20lake%20has%20served,to%20prevent%20poaching%20of%20birds.



6.Russia Adds Bulava Nuclear Missile to Arsenal

Bulava Missile

  • New nuclear-capable intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) for Russia
  • Designed for launch from Borei-class submarines
  • Key part of Russia’s future strategic nuclear force


  • Three-stage solid-propellant missile
  • Launch mass: 36.8 tonnes
  • Throw weight: 1,150 kg
  • Length: 12.1 meters
  • Diameter: 2 meters
  • Maximum range: 8,300 km (5,160 miles)
  • Payload: Up to 10 MIRVs (multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles)
  • MIRVs: Can deliver nuclear warheads to different targets
  • MIRVs are maneuverable and can retarget, improving their ability to bypass defenses
  • RVs have high accuracy (around 250-300 meters)

Source : https://www.reuters.com/world/europe/russia-puts-submarine-launched-bulava-intercontinental-missile-into-service-2024-05-14/



7.Indian Army Receives Igla-S Air Defense Systems


  • Man-portable air defense system (MANPADS) from Russia
  • Designed to shoot down low-flying aircraft, cruise missiles, and drones
  • Effective range: 500 meters to 6 kilometers, altitude up to 3.5 kilometers
  • Missile speed: 400 meters per second
  • Deployment time: 13 seconds
  • Components: 9M342 missile, 9P522 launcher, support vehicles for testing and maintenance


  • Strengthens India’s air defense, especially in mountainous areas
  • Provides soldiers with a last line of defense against enemy aircraft and UAVs
  • Enhances India’s overall air defense network


Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/army-set-to-receive-igla-s-air-defence-systems-partly-assembled-in-india/article68179544.ece



8.Zero-Day Vulnerabilities: A Security Threat

What is a Zero-Day Vulnerability?

  • A flaw in software (like Google Chrome) unknown to the vendor (e.g., Google)
  • No patch or mitigation exists at the time of discovery, leaving systems vulnerable.

Zero-Day vs. Exploit vs. Attack:

  • Zero-Day Vulnerability (ZDV): The security hole itself.
  • Zero-Day Exploit: The malicious code attackers use to take advantage of the ZDV (often delivered through malware).
  • Zero-Day Attack: The actual exploit of the ZDV using the zero-day exploit. This happens quickly after the ZDV is discovered.

Why are Zero-Days Dangerous?

  • Users are at high risk because there’s no defense until a patch is developed.
  • Once disclosed, a ZDV becomes an “n-day” vulnerability (where n is the number of days since its discovery).


  • Recent discovery of a zero-day vulnerability in Google Chrome has security experts worried.

Source : https://www.ibm.com/topics/zero-day


History and Culture

9.UNESCO Honors Indian Literary Gems: A Look at the Memory of the World Register

A recent announcement saw three Indian literary works inscribed on UNESCO’s prestigious Memory of the World Asia-Pacific Regional Register. This program recognizes documentary heritage of universal value, aiming to preserve and digitize these treasures for future generations.

The Memory of the World Register:

Established by UNESCO, this register highlights the importance of safeguarding humanity’s documentary heritage – archives, libraries, and collections that reflect the diversity of cultures, languages, and historical experiences. Inclusion on this list signifies exceptional cultural significance and encourages efforts towards preservation and accessibility.

The Recognized Works:

  1. Ramcharitmanas: This 16th-century Awadhi epic by Tulsidas recounts the Ramayana, a revered Hindu scripture. Its seven chapters (Kands) narrate the life of Lord Rama, his wife Sita, and their trials. Ramcharitmanas remains a cornerstone of Indian literature and devotional practice.
  2. Panchatantra: An ancient Sanskrit collection attributed to Pt. Vishnu Sharma, the Panchatantra is a series of interconnected fables using animal characters. These stories convey moral lessons and have been translated into numerous languages throughout history, influencing literary traditions worldwide.
  3. Sahṛdayāloka-Locana: Authored by the Kashmiri poet Acharya Anandvardhan, this work delves into aesthetics and literary criticism. It analyzes various aspects of writing and offers insights into the principles of Sanskrit poetics. Sahṛdayāloka-Locana remains a seminal text for understanding Indian literary theory.

Significance of the Recognition:

This inscription marks a significant achievement for India, showcasing the richness and enduring value of its literary heritage on the global stage. It underscores the importance of preserving these cultural treasures and ensuring their accessibility for future generations to appreciate and learn from. The Memory of the World Register serves as a powerful reminder of the importance of documentary heritage in understanding human history and fostering cultural understanding.

Source :https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=2020484



10.Internal Displacement on the Rise: Global Report on Internal Displacement 2024 (GRID-2024)

Increased Displacement:

  • Global internally displaced people (IDP) reach record high: 75.9 million in 2023 (up from 71.1 million in 2022)
  • Conflict and violence cause most displacement (68.3 million), with disasters displacing 7.7 million.

Regional Trends:

  • Nearly half of global IDPs reside in Sudan, Syria, DRC, Colombia, and Yemen.
  • Sudan has the highest number (9.1 million), followed by DRC.
  • South Asia: 5.3 million IDPs, mostly concentrated in Afghanistan (80%).
  • India:
    • Highest number of conflict-induced displacements since 2018 (69,000, mainly in Manipur).
    • Significant decrease in disaster-induced displacements (528,000 in 2023 vs 2.5 million in 2022).

About GRID-2024:

  • Annual report by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC).
  • Tracks internal displacement due to conflict, violence, and disasters.
  • IDMC is the leading source of information and analysis on internal displacement.

IDMC’s Role:

  • Monitors global displacement trends.
  • Provides data and analysis to influence policy and action for IDPs.
  • Acts as an independent advocate for IDPs.

Source : https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/weather-related-disasters-continue-to-displace-more-than-conflict-and-violence-96147



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