Rise of Robusta Coffee Prices


  • Recent spike in Robusta coffee prices due to significant decline in traditional growing regions like Vietnam and Indonesia.

Coffee Production in India:

  • Production: India ranks among the top 10 coffee-producing countries, contributing 3% of global output in 2020.
  • Types: Arabica and Robusta. Arabica commands higher market value due to its mild aromatic flavor, whereas Robusta constitutes 72% of total production.

Agro-Climatic Conditions for Coffee Production in India:

  • Factors:
    • Soils: Deep, fertile, well-drained, slightly acidic.
    • Slopes: Gentle to moderate for Arabica, gentle to fairly level for Robusta.
    • Elevation: 1000-1500m for Arabica, 500-1000m for Robusta.
    • Temperature: 15°C – 25°C for Arabica, 20°C – 30°C for Robusta.
    • Relative Humidity: 70-80% for Arabica, 80-90% for Robusta.
    • Annual Rainfall: 1600-2500mm for Arabica, 1000-2000mm for Robusta.
  • Major Producers: Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu contribute 80% of India’s coffee production, with smaller proportions from Orissa and northeastern regions.

Coffee Board of India:

  • Establishment: Coffee Act VII of 1942.
  • Administrative Control: Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  • Headquarters: Bangalore, Karnataka.
  • Role:
    • Enhance production, productivity, and quality.
    • Promote exports for higher value returns.
    • Support development of domestic market.

Market Intelligence Unit (MIU):

  • Undertakes activities related to market information, intelligence, research studies, crop forecasting, and coffee economics.
  • Functioning from Bangalore headquarters.


Can CM of the State continue to occupy a public office: Lessons from the Senthil Balaji case


  • Questions arise regarding the Delhi Chief Minister’s eligibility to hold public office following remand to Enforcement Directorate custody.

State Executive Composition:

  • Governor appoints Chief Minister and Council of Ministers based on majority support in State Legislative Assembly.
  • Ministers must belong to State legislature; non-legislature appointees cease office if not elected within six months.

Senthil Balaji Case:

  • Madras High Court judgment in S. Ramachandran v. V. Senthil Balaji examined whether a Minister accused in financial scandal can retain public office.
  • Balaji, former Tamil Nadu Electricity Minister, arrested by ED for money laundering, retained ministerial position during judicial custody.

Basic Norms for Public Office:

  • Supreme Court’s 2014 Constitution Bench judgment (Manoj Narula v. Union of India) emphasized:
    • Constitutional Morality: Adherence to rule of law, avoiding actions contradictory to it.
    • Good Governance: Prioritizing public interest over private or political gains.
    • Constitutional Trust: Upholding high moral standards associated with public office.


  • Case raises questions on moral and ethical standards expected from public office holders.
  • Highlights the importance of constitutional morality, good governance, and trust in upholding public office integrity.


  • The Senthil Balaji case underscores the need for public office holders to uphold constitutional morality, good governance, and trust, ensuring integrity and accountability in governance.

World in News: Famine Threat

  • Haiti:Second largest Caribbean Island (1530 km coastline) sharing the island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic. Mountainous land between Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea.
  • Gaza Strip:Located on the eastern Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt, Israel and the Mediterranean Sea. Mostly flat coastal plain, historically agricultural. Predominantly Sunni Muslim population.

Both regions are facing imminent famine threats.

Note : Please Do Mapping also

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