Prelims Exam

Revision Notes


1.Dongria Kondh Tribe


  • Dongria Kondh tribe members threaten election boycott in Odisha.

About Dongria Kondh Tribe

  • PVTG (Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group) residing in Odisha’s Niyamgiri hills.
  • Distinct cultural features:
    • Jewelry – Women wear multiple ear & nose rings, girls wear hair clips & neck beads.
    • Boys wear two nose rings.

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)

  • Identified by the Dhebar Commission (1973).
  • More vulnerable compared to other tribal groups in India.
  • Characteristics:
    • Primitive traits
    • Geographical isolation
    • Low literacy
    • Stagnant or declining population
    • Dependent on hunting and basic technology
  • Odisha has the highest PVTG population (2011 Census).



Science and Tech

2.Membranous Nephropathy (MN) Linked to Fairness Creams


  • Kerala researchers link fairness cream use to nephrotic syndrome in 15 cases.
  • Mercury in fairness creams is a known global health concern.

About Membranous Nephropathy (MN)

  • Autoimmune disease causing nephrotic syndrome (excess protein in urine).
  • Leads to kidney failure.
  • Diagnosed through kidney biopsy.
  • Phospholipase A-2 receptor (PLA2R) is the target antigen in 70-80% of MN cases.
  • Neural epidermal growth factor-like protein 1 (NELL-1) linked to a rare form of MN.


  • Identifying the cause (fairness cream use) is crucial to prevent further damage.
  • Immunosuppressive therapy is a primary treatment option.



3.Crystal Maze 2 Missile

Indian Air Force Test

  • Successful test firing of Crystal Maze 2 missile.

About Crystal Maze 2

  • Air-launched ballistic missile with 250+ km range.
  • Designed for high-value targets like radars and air defenses.
  • Effective in GPS-denied environments and penetrates air defenses.


Art and Culture

4.Indian Historical Records Commission (IHRC)


  • IHRC adopted a new logo and motto.
  • Established: 1919

About IHRC

  • Apex advisory body on archival matters for the Government of India.
  • All-India forum for creators, custodians, and users of historical records.
  • Headed by the Union Minister of Culture.

Role and Significance

  • Identifies, collects, catalogs, and maintains historical records.
  • Advises on managing records and their use for historical research.
  • Promotes public interest in archival conservation and use.

New Logo and Motto

  • Logo:
    • Lotus petals symbolize IHRC’s role in preserving records.
    • Sarnath pillar represents India’s rich history.
    • Brown color reflects the mission of preserving historical records.
  • Motto: “Where history is preserved for the future” emphasizes IHRC’s commitment.


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