Daily Current Affairs

To The Point Notes

1.PREFIRE Mission:

Peering into the Polar Chill

  • NASA’s “Polar Radiant Energy in the Far-InfraRed Experiment” (PREFIRE) mission aims to shed light on Earth’s heat balance by studying heat emissions at the poles.
  • The mission utilizes two miniature satellites (CubeSats) equipped with Thermal Infrared Spectrometers.
  • These instruments will measure the far-infrared radiation emitted by the frigid regions of the Arctic and Antarctica.

Understanding Earth’s Energy Flow

  • Earth’s heat balance is a delicate equilibrium between incoming solar radiation (insolation) and outgoing heat radiating back into space (terrestrial radiation).
  • PREFIRE focuses on far-infrared radiation, a crucial but poorly understood component of this balance, emitted by Earth’s coldest regions.

The Intricate Dance of Heat

  • Consider 100 units of incoming solar radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere.
  • About 35 units are reflected back to space before touching Earth’s surface, with clouds and ice caps contributing most of this reflection (Earth’s albedo).
  • The remaining 65 units are absorbed: 14 units by the atmosphere and 51 units by Earth’s surface.
  • Earth then radiates 51 units back outward, with 17 units escaping directly and 34 units absorbed by the atmosphere.
  • The atmosphere, in turn, radiates 48 units back towards space.
  • This intricate dance ensures that the total outgoing radiation (65 units) balances the incoming solar radiation, maintaining Earth’s heat equilibrium.

Consequences of Imbalance

  • A disrupted heat balance due to rising greenhouse gases traps more heat in the atmosphere, leading to:
    • Rising Global Temperatures: Increased average temperatures disrupt weather patterns and ecosystems.
    • Melting Polar Ice and Glaciers: Melting ice sheets contribute to rising sea levels, threatening coastal regions.
    • Ocean Warming: Warming oceans expand and threaten marine life due to acidification.
    • Increased Frequency of Heatwaves: More frequent and intense heatwaves pose health risks and strain resources.

PREFIRE’s Significance

By precisely measuring far-infrared radiation from the poles, PREFIRE will provide crucial data to:

  • Improve our understanding of Earth’s heat balance.
  • Develop more accurate climate models to predict future changes in ice, sea levels, and weather patterns.
  • Help us mitigate the effects of climate change and adapt to a warming planet.


2.DRDO’s RudraM-II Takes Flight

Made in India Missile

  • The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) successfully flight-tested the RudraM-II air-to-surface anti-radiation missile from a Su-30 MKI fighter jet off the coast of Odisha.

RudraM-II’s Capabilities

  • This indigenously developed missile is propelled by solid fuel and boasts an impressive range of 300 kilometers.
  • With a high speed of Mach 5.5, it can deliver a powerful 200-kilogram payload.



3.Honoring UN Peacekeepers

International Day of UN Peacekeepers

  • The Indian Army commemorated the 76th International Day of UN Peacekeepers, also known as the day of the Blue Berets or Blue Helmets for their signature headwear.

A History of Peacekeeping

  • This day marks the anniversary of the first UN peacekeeping mission, the UN Truce Supervision Organisation (UNTSO), established in 1948 for Palestine.
  • Every year, the UN and member states pay tribute to the selfless service and bravery of men and women deployed in UN peacekeeping missions.
  • Peacekeeping forces are voluntarily contributed by member states.
  • The day also honors the sacrifices made by those who died in the pursuit of peace.

India’s Commitment to Peacekeeping

  • India has a long and distinguished history of contributing to UN peacekeeping operations, consistently ranking among the largest troop contributors.
  • Notably, India deployed the first-ever all-women contingent to a UN peacekeeping mission in 2007.



4.Golden Rice:

Biosafety Concerns in the Philippines

  • A recent court decision in the Philippines revoked biosafety permits for commercially growing genetically modified golden rice and Bt eggplant.

Understanding Golden Rice

  • Golden rice is a new rice variety genetically engineered to contain beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A.
  • This golden-colored rice offers the potential to address vitamin A deficiency, a significant public health concern in some regions.
  • Golden rice cultivation requires no special practices and maintains comparable yield and performance to traditional rice varieties.
  • The Philippines became the first country to approve golden rice for commercial propagation in July 2021.
  • Regulatory bodies in Australia, Canada, the United States, and the Philippines have deemed golden rice safe for consumption due to its minimal genetic modification and the presence of beta-carotene being a natural nutrient.



5.Vivekananda Rock Memorial

Why in news?

  • The Prime Minister of India recently visited and meditated at the Vivekananda Rock Memorial in Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu.

About the Vivekananda Rock Memorial:

  • Location: Off the coast of Kanyakumari, India’s southernmost tip.
  • Significance: Commemorates Swami Vivekananda’s visit in December 1892.
  • Cultural Belief: The rock was blessed by the Goddess Kanyakumari.
  • Spiritual Importance: Swami Vivekananda attained enlightenment on this rock.

Architectural Marvel:

  • Vivekananda Mandapam:
    • Dhyana Mandapam: Meditation area.
    • Sabha Mandapam: Assembly hall.
    • Pralima Mandapam: Statue section featuring a life-sized bronze statue of Swami Vivekananda.
  • Shripada Mandapam:
    • Garbha Graham: Sanctum sanctorum.
    • Design: Ensures Swamiji’s statue faces the sacred Shripadam.

Swami Vivekananda:

  • Birth: Narendra Nath Datta, January 12, 1863.
  • Parents: Bhuvaneswari Devi and Vishwanath Datta.
  • Spiritual Path: Monk and chief disciple of Ramakrishna Paramhansa.
  • Contributions:
    • Philosophy & Spirituality: Influenced Indian thought and nationalism.
    • Nationalism: Promoted a strong, united India.
    • Social Reforms: Advocated for education and empowerment.
    • Global Influence: Introduced Vedanta and Yoga to the West.
    • Interfaith Awareness: Elevated Hinduism on the global stage.
  • Key Event: Represented India at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago, 1893.



6.RBI’s Digital Push

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has undertaken three key initiatives to modernize financial services in India:

  • PRAVAAH Portal (Platform for Regulatory Application, Validation, and Authorization): This secure online portal simplifies applying for RBI approvals. Users can submit applications electronically, track progress, respond to queries, and receive timely decisions. With 60+ application forms (including a general-purpose option), PRAVAAH enhances transparency and reduces delays.
  • Retail Direct Mobile App: Launched alongside the Retail Direct Scheme in November 2021, this app empowers retail investors to buy and sell government securities (G-Secs) directly from their smartphones. Available on Android and iOS, it offers convenient access to primary and secondary G-Sec markets.
  • FinTech Repository: This comprehensive database, managed by the RBIH, gathers information on FinTech companies, their activities, and the technologies they leverage. It provides valuable data for sectoral analysis and policy formulation. Both regulated and unregulated FinTechs are encouraged to contribute data. An additional EmTech Repository focuses on emerging tech adoption by RBI-regulated entities.

These initiatives aim to streamline regulations, empower retail investors, and gain deeper insights into the evolving FinTech landscape.



7.KAZA-TFCA Summit:

Location: Livingstone, Zambia

Participants: Delegates from Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Wildlife, conservation, and tourism experts (May 27-31)


  • Assess progress of the KAZA-TFCA, established to conserve a massive 520,000 sq km area spanning five countries. (This area is roughly the size of France!)
  • Review agreements on wildlife management and community benefits.
  • Secure renewed commitment from leaders for regional cooperation and further development.

Theme: Leveraging KAZA’s natural wonders for inclusive economic growth.

Key Issues:

  • Managing wildlife sustainably to benefit local communities.
  • Maintaining KAZA’s status as the world’s premier conservation area.


  • Technical teams assessed the health of the KAZA rangelands, known for the world’s largest wildlife population.
  • Ministerial meetings followed, focusing on wildlife conservation, management, and community benefits.
  • A presidential summit is expected to solidify leader commitment to the initiative.

The KAZA-TFCA: A Wetland Paradise

  • Spanning five countries, KAZA-TFCA is the world’s largest transfrontier conservation area.
  • This wetland paradise boasts the highest elephant population globally.
  • The region encompasses:
    • 103 wildlife management areas
    • 85 forest reserves
    • 3 World Heritage Sites (Victoria Falls, Okavango Delta, Tsodilo Hills)
    • 36 protected areas, including national parks, game reserves, and community conservancies



Haiti is a country located on the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea. Here’s a quick geographical overview:

  • Location: Western Hispaniola, Caribbean Sea
  • Borders: Dominican Republic (East), Caribbean Sea (South & West), Atlantic Ocean (North)
  • Nearby Islands: Cuba (West), Jamaica (Southwest)


  • Irregular coastline with long southern peninsula and shorter northern peninsula
  • Separated by the Gulf of Gonâve
  • Gonâve Island (largest island belonging to Haiti) located within the Gulf (290 sq mi)


  • Short and mostly non-navigable rivers
  • Artibonite River – Longest river (175 miles)
  • Lake Péligre (formed by damming Artibonite River) – Reservoir for hydroelectricity

Mountain Ranges:

  • Southern Range:
    • Highest point – Mount Selle (8,773 ft)
    • Extends into Massif de la Hotte on southern peninsula
  • Massif du Nord (Northern Range) – Volcanic formations

Geological Features:

  • Prone to earthquakes due to fault lines and geological composition (limestone)
  • Karstic features – Limestone caves, grottoes, and subterranean rivers


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *