GS Mains

G4 Model for UNSC Reforms

G4 Proposal

  • Led by India with support from Brazil, Germany, and Japan.
  • Aims to increase UNSC membership from 15 to 25-26.
    • 6 new permanent members (2 each from Africa & Asia-Pacific, 1 each from Latin America & Western Europe).
    • 4-5 new non-permanent members.
  • Offers flexibility on veto power for new permanent members.
  • Doesn’t specify countries for new permanent seats (decided by democratic UN elections).

Need for Reform

  • Current UNSC lacks representation for key regions (especially developing countries).
  • Inability to address global conflicts due to outdated structure.
  • Veto power by a select few undermines legitimacy and fairness.

Challenges to Reform

  • Veto power of existing permanent members (China opposes India’s permanent seat).
  • Regional rivalries and geopolitical tensions.
  • Complex UN Charter amendment process requiring widespread ratification.

Way Forward

  • UNSC membership needs to reflect the current global landscape.
  • Reform is crucial for the UNSC’s relevance and effectiveness.
  • Achieving consensus among UN members remains a significant hurdle.


Plight of Gig Workers in India: A Study by People’s Association

Key Findings

  • Long Working Hours:
    • Over 83% of cab drivers work more than 10 hours daily.
    • Over 60% of SC/ST drivers work more than 14 hours daily.
  • Low Pay:
    • Over 43% of cab drivers earn less than ₹15,000 per month.
    • 34% of delivery personnel earn less than ₹10,000 per month.
  • Health Risks and Stress:
    • Demanding work hours lead to driver fatigue and road accident risks.
    • “10-minute delivery” policies exacerbate the situation (86% find it unacceptable).
    • Lack of social security and job security creates stress and health issues.
  • Financial Strain:
    • 72% of cab drivers and 76% of delivery personnel struggle to make ends meet.
    • 68% of cab drivers have expenses exceeding earnings (debt risk).
    • Companies deduct higher commissions than advertised (35% report 31-40% deduction).
  • Customer Misbehavior:
    • 72% of drivers and 68% of delivery personnel face negative customer behavior.
  • Limited Leave and ID Deactivation:
    • 41% of drivers and 48% of delivery personnel can’t take weekly offs.
    • ID deactivation by platforms negatively affects 83% of drivers and 87% of delivery personnel.

The Gig Economy

  • Defined as temporary or freelance work through online platforms.
  • Offers flexibility in work hours and income generation.
  • Growing sector:
    • 47% of gig work is medium-skilled, 22% high-skilled, and 31% low-skilled.
    • Drivers and salespersons make up over 52% of gig workers.


  • Social Security Measures:Provide benefits like paid sick leave, health insurance, and pensions.
  • Oversight Mechanism:Ensure fairness in algorithms used by platforms to monitor workers.
  • Skilling Initiatives:Bridge skill gaps through assessments and partnerships with platforms.
  • Women in Gig Economy:Promote gender sensitization and accessibility for women and disabled workers.

Way Forward

  • Regulation is needed to address worker exploitation in the gig economy.
  • Collaboration between government, private sector, and civil society is crucial.


Large Language Models (LLMs) and Inflection 2.5

LLMs Explained

  • Type of AI using deep learning for complex tasks like:
    • Understanding and generating text
    • Summarizing information
    • Predicting new content
  • Deep learning analyzes unstructured data to recognize patterns without human intervention.

Inflection 2.5: Powering Pi Chatbot

  • Inflection 2.5 is a competitive LLM by Inflection AI.
  • Powers Pi, a chatbot designed for deep and meaningful conversations.
  • New features include real-time web search for up-to-date information.

Applications of LLMs

  • Cybersecurity:Detect malicious activity and generate alerts.
  • Natural Language Understanding (NLU):Analyze and understand human language for tasks like:
    • Sentiment analysis
    • Recognizing named entities
    • Text classification
  • Text Generation:Create coherent text based on user prompts (e.g., content creation, story writing).
  • Language Translation:Translate text while preserving context and meaning.
  • Chatbots & Virtual Assistants:Engage in natural language conversations for info, answering questions, or assisting with tasks.
  • Healthcare:Analyze medical literature, answer queries, or help with consultations.
  • Content Moderation:Identify and remove inappropriate content online.

Challenges of LLMs

  • Ethical Concerns:Can perpetuate biases from training data, leading to biased outputs.
  • Security Vulnerabilities:Susceptible to manipulation through adversarial attacks.
  • Interpretability & Explainability:Difficulty understanding how LLMs arrive at specific outputs.


Satellite-Based Toll Collection on Indian Highways

Using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)

  • GNSS constellations like GPS, Galileo, GLONASS provide positioning and timing data.
  • This data is used to track vehicle movement and calculate toll based on distance traveled.

How it Works

  • Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) cameras capture license plates.
  • System tracks entry and exit points to determine travel distance.
  • Toll charges are deducted automatically based on distance.
  • Eliminates fixed toll booths and ensures fairer user charges.

Benefits Over FASTags

  • FASTags require stopping at toll plazas for electronic payment.
  • GNSS-based system eliminates toll booths for seamless travel.


  • Non-Compliance Detection:
    • Difficulty detecting vehicles without On-Board Units (OBU) or with disabled devices.
    • Challenges in preventing fraudulent activities like using a car’s OBU on a truck.
  • Infrastructure Requirements:
    • Setting up ANPR cameras across highways is crucial for enforcement.
  • License Plate Quality:
    • System relies on accurate license plate recognition for proper functioning.
  • Data Privacy and Security:
    • GNSS collects sensitive location data, raising privacy concerns.

Government Initiatives

  • Using GAGAN satellite system (Indian) for data security within the country.
  • Logging highway coordinates using digital image processing.

Way Forward

  • Aims to provide “pay-as-you-use” toll system based on actual travel distance.
  • Focuses on data privacy through domestic systems and data storage.


Kerala Declares Man-Animal Conflict a State Disaster

Why in News?

  • Kerala is the first state to declare human-animal conflict as a state-specific disaster.
  • This transfers the responsibility of managing the issue from the forest department to the disaster management authority.

State Disaster Management Authority

  • Headed by the Chief Minister at the state level and district collector at the district level.
  • Can take quicker decisions and actions compared to the forest department.

Need for the Change

  • Allows for quicker responses to address human-animal conflict.
  • District collectors gain more authority to intervene.

Similar Examples

  • Odisha – Snakebite (2015)
  • Kerala – COVID-19 (2020) & Heatwaves (2019)

Human-Wildlife Conflict

  • Negative encounters between humans and wildlife leading to harm.

Reasons for Conflict

  • Habitat loss due to urbanization and development.
  • Population explosion of humans and wildlife.
  • Deforestation and agricultural expansion.
  • Climate change and invasive species.
  • Increased eco-tourism.

Impacts of Conflict

  • Loss of wildlife and threats to human life, property, and livelihoods.
  • Displacement and forced migration.
  • Increased road/railway accidents due to infrastructure development.

Government Initiatives

  • Project Elephant (1992)
  • Wildlife Protection Act (1972)
  • Protected Areas network
  • Project Tiger (1973)
  • Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE)
  • Operation Thunderbird (Wildlife Crime Control)
  • Plan Bee (NFR to deter elephants from railway tracks)

Way Forward

  • Improve communication between forest department and locals.
  • Create wildlife corridors for safe animal movement.
  • Increase community participation in conservation efforts.
  • Establish more protected areas.
  • Implement measures like deterrents, early warning systems, and compensation schemes.



Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA)

  • India’s 5th generation fighter jet project by DRDO for airforce and navy.
  • 25-tonne twin-engine stealth aircraft with internal weapons bay.
  • First Indian-made Diverterless Supersonic Intake for high performance.
  • Carries 1,500 kg internal and 5,500 kg external payload.
  • Matches fighter jets by US, Russia, and China.


Golden Langurs

  • Scientific Name: Trachypithecus geei
  • Estimated Population: 7,396 (India)
  • Location: Assam, India and Bhutan


  • Moist evergreen and tropical deciduous forests
  • Riverine areas and savannas
  • Upper canopy of sub-tropical and temperate forests


  • Frugivores (eats fruits)
  • Folivores (eats leaves)


  • Golden fur (color changes seasonally)
  • Males are larger than females


  • Fragmented habitat
  • Lack of non-breeding all-male bands
  • Anthropogenic interactions

Conservation Status

  • IUCN Red List: Endangered
  • CITES: Appendix I

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