The Hindu Editorial Topic-1 : Parliaments past, a mirror to changing dynamics

Short notes or Revision Notes


Parliamentary Performance in Recent Years


  • 17th Lok Sabha concluded its proceedings on a Saturday.
  • This article analyses the performance of the Parliament in recent years.

How Ministries fared

  • Shift in focus:
    • Ministries of Health and Family Welfare and Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare are now the top two most questioned ministries.
    • Scrutiny of healthcare system predates the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Declining interest in national security:
    • Ministry of Home Affairs has seen a decline in the number of questions directed towards it.
  • Ministry of Finance:
    • Witnessed a decline in parliamentary interest.
    • Seen a rise in the number of questions admitted for deliberation.
  • Education:
    • Remains among the top five questioned ministries.
    • Seen a rise in the number of disallowed questions.
  • Disallowed Questions:
    • Rajya Sabha sees a rising trend in disallowed questions compared to Lok Sabha.
    • Ministries like Health, Home Affairs, Defence etc. account for a significant portion (36.6% in Rajya Sabha, 37.8% in Lok Sabha) of disallowed questions, highlighting challenges in oversight.
  • Use of Interventions:
    • Zero Hour interventions witnessing a sharp rise in both Rajya Sabha (62% increase) and Lok Sabha (34% increase) over 15 years.
    • This signifies focus on pressing issues and seeking clarifications from the government.
    • However, usage of other interventions like Half-an-Hour Discussions and Calling Attention is declining.
  • Limitations of Zero Hour:
    • Despite its popularity, Zero Hour has limitations for in-depth discussions.
  • Need for Balance:
    • Leverage other interventions like Calling Attention and Half-an-Hour Discussions for broader participation and better solutions.


Overall Performance

  • 16th Lok Sabha demonstrated a higher level of proactivity compared to the 17th Lok Sabha.
  • Missed opportunities for discussions on critical issues like student suicides.


  • Need to revitalise legislative engagement to ensure accountability and enact people-centric policies.




The Hindu Editorial Topic-2 : Escalation ladder

Escalating Conflict in West Asia

  • Israel-Iran Tensions:
    • April 1 attack on Iranian embassy annex in Damascus killed 13 Iranians including a top commander.
    • Seen as a major escalation as embassy complex is protected under international law.
    • Part of a shadow war between Israel and Iran targeting each other’s military figures.
  • Israel’s Concerns:
    • Views Iran as the backbone of anti-Israel militias like Hamas and Hezbollah.
    • Launched offensive in Gaza and air strikes in Syria and Lebanon to counter Iranian influence.
  • Concerns and Next Steps:
    • Continued fighting could lead to a wider war dragging in the US.
    • Iran urged to show restraint and avoid being provoked by Israel.
    • US needs to rein in Israel to prevent further escalation.


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