The Hindu Editorials Notes: Mains Sure Short 


GS-1 Mains

  1. ‘In Today’s modern world social customs always contrast with laws specially related to women’.Define the statement in the context of Sudan’s recent eradication of female genital mutilation?


  •  Sudan’s decision to outlaw the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is a landmark victory for women’s rights in a country that is still in a transition from dictatorship to democracy.


  •    The very brutal practice of cutting female genital in several backward communities long ago, on the name of religion. Recently Sudan has eradicated the practice under political transition and last long protest.
  •    WTO reports  over 200 million girls and women has suffered and living today.

Female genital mutilation (FGM):

  • It is also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. It is still practiced is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common.

New Order:

  •  With the long protest by Hundreds of Sudanese professionals had urged for a broad-based and inclusive constitutional order.
  • The new measure, which involves punishment with a fine and a prison sentence, must still be approved by the Supreme Council, made up of civilians and military officials, that looks the democratic transition.
  • The government’s decision builds on the curbs (restrictions) already in place in a number of provinces, although enforcement has been a concern.

Needs to take stronger action:

  •  The brutal practice has strong bond in communities as a social customs, Sudan, Egypt, Nigeria, Djibouti and Senegal, and some in Asia are part of this custom.
  • There is no benefit of the custom for girl or woman with ongoing research WTO sceptical about the effectiveness of the action.
  • Strong acts and  bold actions are need of the time to cure the social ill.

African scenario:

  • In Egypt’s first FGM trial in 2014, six years after Cairo imposed a ban, the doctor who had carried out the procedure, as well as the father of the deceased girl (dead), were acquitted, despite incriminating forensic evidence.
  • Countries like Somalia, (highest prevalence rate with no legal ban), Uganda, reports last year of some 300 cases of mutilation within a month shed light on the government’s uphill (major) task to back existing legislation with vigorous (strict) awareness campaigns.
  • In Kenya, where the practice was criminalised in 2011, the government strategy last year requiring girls to be tested for circumcision raised concerns of victimisation and privacy violation.
  • These practices suggest that legislation alone may not stop this practice that has deep cultural roots.

Way Ahead:

  • The government has to eradicate (end) it with effective implementation. Sustaining the country’s progressive currents and democratic transition would be crucial to strengthen the gender reforms it has introduced in recent months.

Fodder Points:

  • Women’s rights in today’s modern and more civilized world are question of debate,
  • The reach of social being(good social standards) are highlighted through this issue,
  • Immorality and cruel social customs with humanity always contrast,
  • Strong bonding of co-operation always need,


GS-2 Mains

Q-Discuss the main features of recently cabinet approved Uniform Code of Wages Bill in the Indian context?

  • Due the universal pandemic where all business and economic activities are stopped health and business are at peak point of concern and the interests of labourers and workers are once again set to be sacrificed.
  • However it is immoral and unreasonable due to some States addressing this need by granting sweeping exemptions(liberty) from legal provisions aimed at protecting labourers and employees in factories, industries and other establishments.

States actions and the legal framework

  • ­­To boost business and industry by allowing units to be operated without many of the requirements of the Factories Act Madhya Pradesh Government has extended working 12 hours from 8.
  • chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan’s remarks, it appears the State has used Section 5 of the Act, which permits(allows) exemption from its provisions for three months in a hope that centre will approve it as a part of public emergency.
  • Uttar Pradesh has approved an ordinance suspending for three years all labour laws, save a few ones relating to the abolition of child and bonded labour, women employees, construction workers and payment of wages, besides compensation to workmen for accidents while on duty.
  • Report suggest that several states following these modal to boost economic activities.

Centres Assent :

  • The Centre, which is pursuing a labour reform agenda through consolidated codes for wages, industrial relations and occupational safety, health and working conditions, would not readily agree to wholesale exemptions from legal safeguards and protections the law now affords(grants) to workers.
  • Changes in the manner in which labour laws operate in a State may require the Centre’s assent.

Main features of Universal  Code of Wages Bill:

  • universalizes provisions of minimum wages,
  • ensure timely wages to all employees,
  • ease of compliance will incentivize setting up more enterprises thus more opportunities,
  • changes the role of inspector to facilitator to guide and advise employers and workers,
  • removes multiplicities of definitions and authorities,

 However centre’s response to the pandemic was its inability to protect the most vulnerable sections and its vast underclass of labourers from its impact.The initial focus is on health but growing economic crisis is collective misery that the country is facing.

Way Forward:

  • Either government relieve factories of even elementary duties such as providing drinking water, first aid boxes and protective equipment? Or suspend requirements such as cleanliness, ventilation, lighting, canteens, restrooms and crèches(nursery where babies and young children are cared for during the working day).
  • The Centre should not allow exemptions (relaxations) from welfare laws for workers mooted thought by States.




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