Editorial Micro Notes (11/3/2024)

Q- How does the lack of limits on political party expenditure during elections contribute to problems in the electoral process?

GS-2 Mains Topic- Need for Limits on Election Campaign Spending


  • Governments spending heavily on advertisements before elections.
  • Majority of advertisements tend to favor ruling party, creating personality cults.

Limits on Spending:

  • Traditional Methods: Public meetings used for spreading awareness initially.
  • Modern Methods: Shifted to print and electronic media for wider reach.
  • Current Issue: Government ads before elections favor ruling party, establish personality cults.

The Limit and the Issues:

  • Expenditure Limit: ₹95 lakh per Lok Sabha constituency in larger States, ₹75 lakh in smaller States.
  • Breach of Limits: Candidates often exceed limits, with major parties involved.
  • Unregulated Party Expenditure: No limits on party spending, mostly funded by corporate houses.
  • Unholy Nexus: Leads to dubious relationships between donors and elected representatives.
  • Election Integrity Compromised: Opacity in donations, cash distribution weaken free and fair elections.
  • Supreme Court’s Intervention: Struck down electoral bonds scheme but challenges remain.

Towards a Level Playing Field:

  • State Funding Advocacy: Proposed by Indrajit Gupta Committee and Law Commission.
  • Feasibility Concerns: Doubts over implementation due to lack of consensus and discipline.


  • Ban on Government Ads: Six months prior to general elections.
  • Regulation of Party Financial Assistance: Should align with candidate expenditure limits.
  • Ceiling on Party Expenditure: Tied to candidate expenditure limits multiplied by number of party candidates.
  • Judicial Reforms: Additional judges in High Courts for swift resolution of election-related cases.


  • Reforms require bipartisan support to ensure free and fair elections and prevent burden on citizens.



Questions : How does urban growth contribute to the depletion of groundwater recharge?


What long-term strategies are suggested for resolving Bengaluru’s water crisis?

GS-1 Mains : Bengaluru’s Water Crisis: Reasons and Solutions

Reasons for the Crisis

  • Insufficient rainfall and depleted Cauvery river
  • Urban growth reducing groundwater recharge
  • Inadequate water infrastructure
  • Climate change and erratic rainfall
  • Polluted water bodies
  • Inefficient water management
  • Disputes with neighboring states
  • Lack of preparedness


  • Inclusive Water Governance:Involve all communities in water management decisions.
  • Interlinking Rivers:Connect water-rich areas to deficient ones.
  • Promote Water Conservation:Encourage rainwater harvesting and efficient irrigation.
  • Invest in Infrastructure:Allocate funds to improve water projects.
  • Sustainable Agriculture:Support water-saving farming practices.
  • Address Pollution:Control industrial and agricultural water pollution.
  • One Water Approach:Manage water resources sustainably for all.
  • Community Management:Empower communities to address water access challenges.
  • Raise Awareness:Educate people on water conservation and equitable access.

Key Government Schemes

  • MGNREGA: Promotes water conservation through rural employment.
  • Jal Kranti Abhiyan: Raises awareness on water conservation.
  • National Water Mission: Focuses on sustainable water management.
  • Atal Bhujal Yojana: Improves groundwater management.
  • Jal Jeevan Mission: Aims to provide tap water in rural areas.
  • National Mission for Clean Ganga: Addresses groundwater issues in the Ganga basin.

Way Forward

  • Need for long-term, bipartisan solutions.
  • Develop a circular water economy to maximize water use.
  • Ensure a clean and healthy Cauvery river.


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