India Pushes for UN Security Council Reforms

GS-3 Mains (Security)

Short Notes or Revision Notes 

Question : Discuss India’s stance on UN Security Council reforms and its proposals for expanding both permanent and non-permanent categories. Analyze the reasons behind India’s push for reform and its implications for global governance.

India’s Stance:

  • Reiterated urgent need for genuine UNSC reform during 6th round of intergovernmental negotiations.
  • Favors expansion of both permanent and non-permanent categories.
  • Over 90% of UN member states support expansion in both categories.

About the UNSC:

  • Maintains international peace and security.
  • Established in 1945 with 15 members.
  • 5 permanent members with veto power: China, France, Russia, UK, USA.
  • 10 non-permanent members elected for 2 years.

Need for Reform:

  • Under-representation of key regions like Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
  • Inability to address critical conflicts due to current composition.
  • Lack of reflection of the changed world order since 1945.
  • Veto power by only permanent members hinders action on global issues.
  • Lack of transparency and accountability.

Challenges to Reform:

  • Veto power of permanent members can block reform.
  • Regional rivalries and geopolitical tensions.
  • Complex amendment process requiring UN Charter ratification.
  • China’s opposition to India’s permanent membership.

Way Forward:

  • Both permanent and non-permanent membership should reflect today’s world.
  • Reforms are crucial for UNSC’s relevance, legitimacy, and effectiveness.
  • Achieving consensus among member states remains challenging.

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