Daily Hot Topic

Topic : Northern Hemisphere Summer 2023: Hottest in 2,000 Years (Nature Study)

GS-3 Mains : Environment

Revision Notes

  • Cause: Rising greenhouse gas emissions and climate patterns.
  • Temperature: 1.19°C warmer than previous record (246 AD, 0.88°C).
    • This period (1-500 AD) considered warmest in past 2,000 years (Late Roman Warm Period, natural causes).
  • Comparison: Almost 4°C warmer than coldest summer (536 AD, post-volcanic eruption).
  • Impact: 2015 Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C warming limit likely exceeded.
  • Data Source: Tree ring analysis by researchers from UK, Germany, Czech Republic (past climate over 2,000 years).
    • Wider rings indicate warm/wet years, thinner rings indicate cold/dry years.
  • Past temperature data helps assess human impact on climate change (natural variability vs. recent trends).
  • June-July-August 2023 temperatures 2.07°C warmer than pre-industrial average (1850-1900).
  • Southern Hemisphere data limited, so conclusions not possible there.
  • El Nino events (warm Pacific Ocean phase) linked to warmer periods in past 2,000 years.
  • Central Pacific Nino 3.4 sea surface temperature (SST) used as a reference point.
  • El Nino events linked to stronger heatwaves due to global warming.
  • Prof. Jan Esper (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany) emphasizes human influence on El Nino intensity.
  • 2023 heatwave consistent with earlier predictions of extreme summer temperatures.
  • May 2024 NOAA forecast: El Nino likely transitions to neutral in June, with a possible La Nina development later (49% chance June-August, 69% chance July-Sept).


Source : https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/northern-hemisphere-2023-summer-warmest-in-two-millennia-study-calls-for-urgent-greenhouse-gas-reduction-96152

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