GS 2


  1. China cautious on G4 push for UNSC reforms

The issue in news

China has said that there are enormous divisions and a lack of consensus on taking forward the stalled reforms of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC).


  • India begins a two-year term as one of the 10 non-permanent UNSC members in January 2021 and has said it will continue pushing for reforms.
  • Recently, India, Brazil, Japan and Germany (Collectively known as G-4) called for an early push for text-based negotiations for comprehensive reform of the UN Security Council.


China’s take on UNSC Reforms:

  • Chinese analysts have long been dismissive of the G4 that has been seeking permanent membership of the UNSC.
  • China has in the past indicated that it would not favour the inclusion of at least three of its members for differing reasons
  • India and Japan considering their historically difficult relations with China.
  • Germany because it is not a developing country.


  1. India, Pak. trade charges at SAARC, CICA meets

The issue in news

  • India and Pakistan clashed over terrorism and Jammu and Kashmir at the Foreign Ministers’ meetings of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA).

Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA)

  • The Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) is an inter-governmental forum for enhancing cooperation towards promoting peace, security and stability in Asia.
  • It is a forum based on the recognition that there is a close link between peace, security and stability in Asia and in the rest of the world.
  • The key idea of the Conference is based on the priority of the indivisibility of security, joint initiative and mutually beneficial interaction of small and large states.
  • It was established in 1999. It is headquartered at Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.
  • For becoming a member of CICA, a state must have at least a part of its territory in Asia.
  • India is a member of CICA since its inception.




GS 3

  1. Five States can borrow more on reform

The issue in news

The Centre has permitted five states to borrow an additional 9,913 crore through open market borrowings to meet expenditure requirements amid falling revenues due to the COVID-19 crisis.

Main points

  • The permission was accorded after the five states met the reform condition of implementation of ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ system.
  • These states are A.P., Telangana, Goa, Karnataka and Tripura.
  • The Centre had, in May 2020, allowed additional borrowing limit of up to 2% of Gross State Domestic Product to states for FY21 with certain conditions.
  • Half of this could be raised subject to the implementation of the four specific state-level reforms, where the weighting of each reform is 0.25 per cent of gross state domestic product (GSDP).
  • These reforms were the implementation of ‘one nation, one ration card’ system; ease of doing business reform; urban local body and utility reforms, and power sector reforms.
  • The remaining additional borrowing limit of 1 per cent was to be released in two instalments of 0.50 per cent each — first immediately to all the states, and the second on the undertaking of at least three out of the above-mentioned reforms.



 Normally, states can borrow to the point that their fiscal deficit does not cross 3 per cent of their GSDP.

Due to the effect on economic activities because of coronavirus-induced lockdowns, states’ finances have been dull.


  1. RBI releases document on UCBs’ cybersecurity

The issue in news

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has brought out a document titled the ‘Technology Vision for Cyber Security for Urban Co-operative Banks (UCBs) 2020-2023’.


It has been drafted to enhance the cybersecurity of urban co-operative banks (UCBs).

It aspires to:

  • Involve more board oversight over cybersecurity.
  • Enable UCBs to better manage and secure IT assets. Implement an offsite supervisory mechanism framework for UCBs on cybersecurity-related controls.
  • Develop a forum for UCBs so that they can share best practices and discuss practical issues and challenges.
  • Implement a framework for providing awareness/training for all UCBs.



  • It has 12 specific action points and plans to achieve its objective through a five-pillared strategic approach GUARD:
  • Governance Oversight
  • Utile Technology Investment
  • Appropriate Regulation and Supervision
  • Robust Collaboration
  • Developing necessary IT, cybersecurity skill sets.


  • With wider adoption of digital banking channels, the cybersecurity landscape will continue to evolve. It would necessitate the UCBs to manage the associated risks effectively.


  • Active collaboration within UCBs and stakeholders would be necessary for sharing and coordinating various measures taken on cybersecurity aspects




Category: SECURITY

  1. China refused plea for help from northeast insurgents

The issue in news

The Assam Government has informed a UAPA tribunal that major extremist outfits of the northeast had contacted Chinese authorities for assistance in their fight against India, but the Chinese had refused to provide assistance.

  • The tribunal was constituted under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) after the Union Home Ministry extended the ban on the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) in November 2019 for five years.
  • The tribunal upheld the ban and declared NDFB an unlawful association for a period of five years.



  • The affidavit, filed by the government before the tribunal said the United National Liberation Front of West of South East Asia (UNLFWSEA), had taken a resolution “to take assistance from a third nation” to achieve their goal.
  • UNLFWSEA is a Myanmar-based conglomerate of banned outfits such as the NSCN-K, ULFA-I, NDFB-S and KLO.
  • The conglomerate was formed in 2015.
  • UNLFW first preferred China to seek for assistance.
  • Upon China’s refusal, as an alternative, UNLFWSEA looked for establishing nexus with Pakistan.
  • It was learnt that Pakistan (ISI) was providing all sorts of assistance to outfit groups fighting against India. However, their plan could not be executed.

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