India-Africa Relations: A Time for Renewal

GS-2 Mains 

Short Notes Or Revision Notes 

Question : Propose strategies for enhancing India-Africa cooperation in key areas such as food security, agricultural development, capacity building, and joint research. Discuss the importance of these initiatives in addressing shared challenges and fostering sustainable development in both regions.

Strong Foundations

  • Longstanding partnership based on shared values.
  • Growing trade (from $68.5 billion in 2011-12 to $90.5 billion in 2022-23).
  • India among top 5 investors in Africa.

Collaboration on Global Issues

  • Joint efforts to protect developing countries’ interests at WTO (e.g., Agriculture Framework Proposal, COVID-19 vaccine IPR waiver).
  • India’s G20 presidency and AU membership strengthen Global South’s voice.

Importance of Africa for India

  • Africa’s high growth rate (3.8%) and young population.
  • Africa’s growing influence in global forums.
  • Access to critical minerals for India’s energy transition (30% of global reserves in Africa).


  • COVID-19 pandemic and Ukraine war’s impact on African economies (debt, food insecurity).
  • China’s growing economic and diplomatic influence in Africa.
  • Delay in holding the 4th India-Africa Forum Summit.

The Way Forward

  • Leverage historical partnerships for India’s Global South aspirations.
  • Organize the India-Africa Forum Summit to solidify partnership.
  • Prioritize Africa’s food security and agricultural development.
  • Enhance collaboration in capacity building (negotiation skills, project management, technical training).
  • Promote joint research to address shared challenges.


Editorial Topic-2:  Katchatheevu Islet: A Maritime Dispute

GS-2 Mains 

Short Notes Or Revision Notes 


Question : What implications does the Katchatheevu dispute have for India-Sri Lanka relations and regional stability?


  • Katchatheevu, an uninhabited islet, is located in the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka.
  • The island was a point of contention between the two countries for decades.

Agreements and Delimitation

  • 1974 Agreement:
    • Prime Ministers Indira Gandhi (India) and Sirimavo Bandaranaike (Sri Lanka) signed an agreement to define the maritime boundary in the Palk Strait.
    • A joint statement declared the boundary drawn “in conformity with historical evidence and legal principles.”
    • The pact placed Katchatheevu one mile off the west coast of Sri Lanka.
  • 1976 Supplemental Pact:
    • Clarified that fishing vessels and fishermen of both nations require permission to fish in each other’s waters.

Traditional Use and Importance

  • Fishermen from both India and Sri Lanka have traditionally used the islet for fishing.
  • Anthony’s Church on Katchatheevu hosts an annual festival attracting devotees from both sides.

Historical Claims

  • Sri Lanka’s Claim:Sovereignty based on Portuguese control (1505-1658 CE).
  • India’s Claim:Possession by the Raja of Ramnad as part of his territory.
    • Historical records show tax collection by the Raja till 1947 (Zamindari Abolition Act).

Indian Government’s Position

  • 2013:No territory ceded to Sri Lanka, dispute settled by 1974-76 agreements.
  • 2022:Katchatheevu lies on the Sri Lankan side of the maritime boundary line.

Current Situation

  • The transfer of Katchatheevu to Sri Lanka sparked debates in the Indian Parliament.
  • Leaders from Tamil Nadu continue to demand the island’s retrieval, including a “lease in perpetuity” proposal.




Editorial Topic-3 : India’s Summer Forecast: Heatwaves Likely

GS-1 Mains 

Short Notes Or Revision Notes 

Question : Discuss the factors contributing to the prediction of above-average heatwave days in India as forecasted by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and the potential implications for different regions of the country.

IMD Prediction

  • India Meteorological Department (IMD) predicts above-average heatwave days for most of the country.
  • This will impact southern, central, eastern, and northwestern regions.
  • The forecast includes above-normal maximum and minimum temperatures.

El Niño’s Influence

  • Weakening El Niño (warmer Pacific Ocean temperatures) could contribute to increased heat.
  • However, El Niño is expected to weaken further and potentially transition to La Niña (cooler Pacific Ocean temperatures) during monsoon season, which could bring more rainfall.

Heatwave Definition (IMD)

  • A period of abnormally high temperatures.
  • Heatwave declaration by IMD:
    • Minimum 40°C in plains, 30°C in hills (with significant deviation from normal temperatures).
    • Maximum temperature exceeding 45°C or 47°C (severe heatwave).

Heatwaves in India

  • Typically occur between March and June, peaking in May.
  • A 2023 study linked climate change to more frequent, intense, and deadly heatwaves globally.
  • The study also indicated potentially severe impacts of abnormal temperatures on over 90% of India.

Impacts of Increased Heatwaves

  • Risks to livelihoods, food production, disease spread, and more.
  • Adverse health effects including heat stress and death (according to WHO).
  • Reduced hydroelectric output, leading to increased reliance on coal (affecting emission reduction goals).

Managing Heatwaves During Elections

  • Election Commission issued advisories for voters:
    • Carrying water bottles.
    • Protecting oneself from sunlight.

Overall Impact of Heatwaves

  • Strain on health and emergency services.
  • Increased pressure on water, energy, and transportation infrastructure (potential power shortages).
  • Risks to food and livelihood security.


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