Editorial Topic-1 : A Lesson from Taiwan in Quake Resilience

GS-2 Mains 

Revision Notes 

Question : Evaluate the key lessons that India can learn from Taiwan’s approach to earthquake resilience.

Context: An earthquake of magnitude 5.3 struck Manali, Himachal Pradesh on April 4, 2024.

Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics:

  • Occur in bands explained by plate tectonics.
  • Lithosphere (Earth’s outer layer) broken into 15 plates moving constantly.
  • Powerful earthquakes concentrated along convergent plate boundaries (e.g., Himalayas).

The Story of Two Earthquakes:

  • Taiwan:Located at a convergent plate boundary, experiences frequent earthquakes.
    • 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (magnitude 7.7): Devastating (2,430+ deaths).
    • 2024 Hualien earthquake (magnitude similar to Chi-Chi): Minimal damage (13 deaths).
  • Reason for Difference:
    • 1999 earthquake a wake-up call for Taiwan.
    • Implemented stricter building codes, early warning systems, public awareness campaigns.
    • Upgraded earthquake-resistant infrastructure.

Key Learnings from Taiwan:

  • Strict Seismic Codes and Enforcement:Building codes based on local earthquake activity.
    • Example: India’s IS 1893 code for seismic design.
  • Public Awareness and Drills:Educate citizens about earthquake safety.
  • Building Retrofitting:Improve quake resistance of existing structures (subsidies).
  • New Technologies:Utilize seismic dampers and base isolation systems.

India’s Concerns and Actions:

  • Major infrastructure expansion in earthquake-prone regions (e.g., Himalayas).
  • Flagrant violations of safety norms in ecologically sensitive areas.
  • Actions Needed:
    • Strict adherence to seismic safety regulations in all infrastructure projects.
    • Rediscover and promote traditional earthquake-resistant architecture.
    • Learn from countries like Taiwan and Japan for better preparedness.


India must adopt stricter building codes, raise public awareness, and upgrade infrastructure to minimize earthquake losses. Emulating successful strategies from Taiwan and Japan is crucial for improved earthquake resilience.



The Hindu Editorial Editorial Topic-2 : Rules Around Star Campaigners

GS-2 Mains 

Revision Notes 

Legal Provisions:

  • Section 77 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 (RP Act) defines ‘star campaigners’.
  • These individuals, typically top leaders of a political party, must be members of the appointing party.
  • Recognised political parties can appoint up to 40 star campaigners; unrecognised parties, up to 20.
  • Names must be communicated to the Election Commission and Chief Electoral Officer within seven days of election notification.


  • Expenditure incurred by star campaigners for party travel isn’t included in candidate expenditure.
  • Election expenditure limit: ₹95 lakh per Lok Sabha constituency in larger states, ₹75 lakh in smaller ones.
  • Allows parties to benefit from star campaigners’ influence without exceeding expenditure limits.


  • EC advisory urges decorum and restraint in campaigning, focusing on issue-based debate.
  • Star campaigners often engage in inappropriate language and unsubstantiated allegations.
  • EC lacks powers to take direct action against violators.


  • Amend the law to authorize the EC to revoke star campaigner status for serious violations.
  • Strengthen assessment and apportionment of campaign expenses to reflect current market rates.


  • Amendment of laws may enhance accountability and decorum in political campaigns, ensuring compliance with the Model Code of Conduct.


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