GS-2 Mains : Economy : New Highway Toll System in India

Question :What are the potential benefits of the new satellite-based toll collection system compared to the current FASTag system?


  • Uses Global Navigation Satellite System (GAGAN, India’s system) for location tracking.
  • On-Board Unit (OBU) in vehicles transmits location data.
  • Tolls based on distance traveled, deducted from linked wallet.
  • Gantries with CCTV cameras enforce compliance (license plate verification).
  • Aims for pay-as-you-use and barrier-free movement.


  • Recovering unpaid tolls (no toll booths).
  • Vehicles without OBUs or with switched-off devices.
  • Lack of nationwide ANPR (Automatic Number-Plate Recognition) infrastructure.
  • Low quality license plates in some areas.
  • Amending toll collection rules (OBU requirement, unpaid toll recovery).

Privacy Concerns:

  • Uses GAGAN (not US-owned GPS) for data security.
  • Digital Personal Data Protection Act (2023) to address privacy concerns (criticized for potential government surveillance).


  • Coexists with FASTag system initially (OBU mandatory for all vehicles not yet decided).
  • Broader legal framework needed for enforcement and unpaid tolls.


  • Coexists with FASTag system initially (OBU mandatory for all vehicles not yet decided).



GS-3 Mains : Sci.-Tech : Understanding Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Question : How do artificial neural networks contribute to a machine’s ability to learn and solve problems?

AI Definition:

  • Intelligence exhibited by machines.
  • Combination of machine hardware and software.

Types of Machine Learning:

  • Supervised Learning:Labeled data used for training.
  • Unsupervised Learning:Unlabeled data used for pattern recognition.
  • Reinforcement Learning:Machine learns by trial and error, receiving feedback.

Machine’s “Brain”: Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)

  • Inspired by the structure and function of the human brain.
  • Composed of interconnected nodes (like neurons) with weighted connections (like synapses).
  • Activation functions within nodes process information and generate outputs.
  • Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) are well-suited for running ANNs due to their processing power.

Applications of AI:

  • Healthcare:Improved diagnosis, personalized treatment, research & development.
  • Business:Optimized operations, better decision-making, enhanced customer service.
  • Education:Personalized learning experiences catering to different needs.
  • Judiciary:Streamlined processes, legal research & analysis, online dispute resolution.
  • Cybersecurity:Threat detection, anomaly identification, data analysis for vulnerabilities.

The Future of AI:

  • Potential to surpass human intelligence and improve our lives.
  • Importance of balanced use to avoid over-reliance on machines.

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