Intersection of Civil Disobedience and Round Table Talks

Arora IAS Class Notes


Calcutta Congress (December 1928):

  • Approval of Nehru Report with dominion status as the goal.
  • Younger Congress members (Nehru, Bose, Satyamurthy) demanded complete independence (“purna swaraj”).
  • Compromise: Dominion status within a year or launch civil disobedience movement.

1929 Political Activity:

  • Gandhi prepared people for civil disobedience.
  • Focus on village organization, grievance redressal (similar to Bardoli agitation of 1928).
  • Aggressive foreign cloth boycott campaign with public bonfires.
  • Other events:
    • Meerut Conspiracy Case (March).
    • Bhagat Singh and B.K. Dutt’s bomb explosion in Central Legislative Assembly (April).
    • Labour government led by Ramsay MacDonald comes to power in Britain (May).
    • Wedgewood Benn becomes Secretary of State for India.

Irwin’s Declaration (October 31, 1929):

  • Joint effort by British Labour government and Viceroy Irwin.
  • Clarified British intent of eventual dominion status for India (though no timeframe).
  • Promised Round Table Conference after the Simon Commission report.

Delhi Manifesto (November 2, 1929):

  • Conditions for Congress participation in Round Table Conference:
    • Conference to draft a dominion status constitution (acting as a constituent assembly).
    • Immediate acceptance of dominion status as the principle.
    • Congress majority representation at the conference.
    • General amnesty for political prisoners and conciliatory policies.

Congress-Irwin Talks (December 1929):

  • Gandhi and other leaders met Lord Irwin.
  • Viceroy rejected Congress demands from the Delhi Manifesto.
  • Stage set for confrontation.


Lahore Congress and Purna Swaraj (December 1929)

Nehru as President:

  • Chosen due to Gandhi’s support and success of anti-Simon campaign.
  • Socialist and republican views emphasized in his address.
  • Advocated for a mass, peaceful liberation movement.

Major Decisions:

  • Boycott of Round Table Conference.
  • Complete independence declared as the Congress goal.
  • Authorization for civil disobedience (including tax non-payment) and legislative resignations.
  • January 26, 1930 designated as the first Independence Day.

Hoisting of the National Flag (December 31, 1929):

  • Jawaharlal Nehru hoisted the newly adopted tricolor flag at midnight on the banks of the Ravi River.

Independence Pledge (January 26, 1930):

  • Read out nationwide during public meetings.
  • Key Points:
    • Freedom as an inalienable right.
    • British exploitation causing economic, political, cultural, and spiritual ruin.
    • Necessity for severing British ties and achieving complete independence.
    • Condemnation of British policies (high taxes, village industry destruction, etc.).
    • Lack of political power and stifling of administrative talent.
    • Detrimental cultural and spiritual effects of British rule.
    • Civil disobedience and non-cooperation as means to end British rule.
    • Commitment to following Congress instructions for achieving complete independence.

Civil Disobedience Movement: Salt Satyagraha and Other Actions

Gandhi’s Eleven Demands (January 1930):

  • Presented to the government with an ultimatum for acceptance by January 31st.
  • Aimed at general, bourgeois, and peasant concerns.
  • Included reducing military spending, prohibition, CID reform, and releasing political prisoners.
  • Specific economic demands addressed currency exchange, textile protection, and coastal shipping.
  • Peasant demands focused on reducing land revenue and abolishing the salt tax.

Salt as the Focus:

  • Chosen for its universality – essential for all, including the poorest.
  • Taxing salt burdened the most vulnerable.
  • Symbolic act of self-sufficiency, similar to the khadi movement.
  • Connected urban supporters to the struggles of the rural poor.

Dandi March (March 12 – April 6, 1930)

  • Gandhi announced his plan to march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi (240 miles) with 78 followers.
  • The march aimed to break the salt law by collecting salt at the coast.
  • Thousands gathered at the ashram before the march began.
  • Gandhi provided instructions for future actions, including:
    • Civil disobedience of the salt law.
    • Picketing foreign liquor and cloth shops.
    • Non-payment of taxes (with appropriate strength).
    • Lawyers giving up practice.
    • Public boycotting courts by avoiding litigation.
    • Government servants resigning.
  • All actions emphasized truth and non-violence.
  • Local leadership to be followed after Gandhi’s arrest (anticipated).
  • The march marked the official start of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • Breaking the salt law on April 6th symbolized defiance against British rule.
  • Gandhi encouraged people to make salt at home, violating the law further.
  • The march and its impact received significant press coverage.
  • Gujarat saw a response with 300 village officials resigning.
  • Congress workers actively organized at the grassroots level.

Spread of Salt Law Disobedience

Following Gandhi’s Lead (April 1930):

  • Gandhi’s Dandi March and salt law violation inspired nationwide defiance.
  • Nehru’s arrest in April triggered protests in major cities.
  • Gandhi’s arrest in May (after announcing a raid on Dharasana Salt Works) led to:
    • Massive protests in Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, and Sholapur (fiercest response).
  • Congress Working Committee authorized further actions:
    • Non-payment of revenue in ryotwari areas.
    • No-chowkidari tax campaign in zamindari areas.
    • Violation of forest laws in the Central Provinces.

Satyagraha Across India:

  • Regional variations in the movement’s character:
    • Tamil Nadu:
      • Salt march led by C. Rajagopalachari.
      • Widespread picketing of foreign cloth shops and anti-liquor campaigns.
      • Violent eruptions by masses and police repression.
    • Malabar:
      • Salt marches organized by K. Kelappan.
  1. Krishna Pillai’s defense of the national flag during police action.
  • Andhra Region:
    • District salt marches organized.
    • Support from merchants and dominant castes.
    • Less mass participation compared to Non-Cooperation Movement (1921-22).
  • Orissa:
    • Effective salt satyagraha in coastal regions under Gopalbandhu Choudhuri.
  • Assam:
    • Limited impact due to internal divisions and student strike.
  • Bengal:
    • Factions within the Congress led to alienation from rural masses.
    • Communal riots and limited Muslim participation.
    • Highest number of arrests and violence.
    • Powerful movements in Midnapur, Arambagh, and other areas.
    • Surya Sen’s Chittagong group carried out an armory raid and declared a provisional government.
  • Bihar:
    • Champaran and Saran initiated salt satyagraha.
    • Focus shifted to no-chaukidari tax agitation due to geographical limitations.
    • Decline in foreign cloth and liquor sales, administrative collapse in some areas.
    • Tribal belt saw lower-class militancy under Gandhian influence.
    • Mixed participation from zamindars, small landlords, and tenants.
  • Peshawar:
    • Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan’s leadership and “Khudai Khidmatgars” (Red Shirts) led to mass demonstrations and a brief period of control by the crowd.
    • Uprising by a section of Garhwal Rifles soldiers.
  • Sholapur:
    • Fiercest response – textile worker strike, burning of government buildings, establishment of a parallel government (crushed by martial law).
  • Dharasana:
    • Sarojini Naidu, Imam Sahib, and Manilal Gandhi led a non-violent raid on Dharasana Salt Works, met with a brutal lathi-charge.
    • This new form of salt satyagraha inspired similar actions in other areas.
  • Gujarat:
    • Determined no-tax movement with refusal to pay land revenue.
    • Villagers crossed borders into neighboring states to evade repression.
  • Maharashtra, Karnataka, Central Provinces:
    • Defiance of forest laws (grazing, timber restrictions) and public sale of illegally acquired forest produce.
  • United Provinces:
    • No-revenue campaign targeting zamindars and tenants (gained momentum in October).
  • Manipur and Nagaland:
    • Rani Gaidinliu, a young Naga leader, led a revolt against British rule, urging non-payment of taxes and inspiring defiance.

Mobilization in the Civil Disobedience Movement


  • Prabhat Pheris: Morning processions to raise awareness.
  • Vanar Senas: Monkey Brigades – young boys involved in spreading messages.
  • Manjari Senas: Girls’ brigades participating in picketing and protests.
  • Secret Patrikas: Underground pamphlets and newspapers.
  • Magic Lantern Shows: Public education using projected visuals.

Impact of the Agitation

  • Reduced imports of foreign cloth and other items.
  • Loss of government income from liquor, excise, and land revenue.
  • Low participation in Legislative Assembly elections.


Extent of Mass Participation


  • Played a significant role picketing shops selling foreign cloth, liquor, and opium.
  • Marked their entry into the public sphere.

Students and Youth:

  • Actively participated in boycotting foreign cloth and liquor.


  • Lower participation compared to 1920-22 due to:
    • Appeals from Muslim leaders to stay away.
    • Government encouragement of communal discord.
  • Active participation in some areas (NWFP, Senhatta, Tripura, etc.)
  • Participation from middle class, shopkeepers, and women in some regions.
  • Mobilization of Muslim weaving communities in Bihar, Delhi, and Lucknow.

Merchants and Petty Traders:

  • Enthusiastic participation, especially in implementing boycotts (Tamil Nadu, Punjab).


  • Active participation in Central Provinces, Maharashtra, and Karnataka.


  • Participated in strikes and protests in major cities (Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, etc.)


  • Actively involved in the United Provinces, Bihar, and Gujarat.


Government Response and Efforts for Truce

Initial Ambivalence:

  • Faced a dilemma – using force brought accusations of repression, while inaction was seen as weakness.
  • Gandhi’s arrest was delayed due to hesitation.

Repressive Measures:

  • Banned civil liberties and gagged the press.
  • Empowered provincial governments to ban civil disobedience organizations.
  • Employed lathi-charges and firing on unarmed crowds.
  • Imprisoned thousands of satyagrahis and leaders.

Truce Efforts:

  • Viceroy Irwin (July 1930) proposed a round table conference and reiterated the goal of dominion status.
  • Negotiations between Gandhi and Nehru family (August 1930) failed due to Congress demands for:
    • Right of secession.
    • Complete national government with control over defense and finance.
    • Independent tribunal to settle British financial claims.


Gandhi-Irwin Pact (March 5, 1931)

Key Points:

  • Released all members of the Congress Working Committee (CWC).
  • Placed the Congress on an equal footing with the government.

British Government Concessions:

  • Released all political prisoners (except those involved in violence).
  • Remitted uncollected fines.
  • Returned unsold confiscated lands.
  • Offered lenient treatment to resigned government servants.
  • Allowed salt production for personal consumption in coastal villages.
  • Permitted peaceful picketing.
  • Withdrew emergency ordinances.

Rejected Gandhi’s Demands:

  • Public inquiry into police brutality.
  • Commutation of Bhagat Singh and comrades’ death sentences.

Congress Agreements:

  • Suspended the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • Participated in the Round Table Conference on:
    • Federation
    • Indian responsibility in government
    • Reservations and safeguards (defense, external affairs, minorities, etc.)


Evaluation of the Civil Disobedience Movement

Gandhi-Irwin Pact Not a Retreat:

  • Mass movements have limitations in duration.
  • Sacrifices can’t be sustained indefinitely.
  • Signs of exhaustion by September 1930 (shopkeepers, merchants).

Positive Outcomes:

  • Government recognized the movement’s significance.
  • Gandhi treated as an equal, leading to a pact.
  • Released political prisoners celebrated as heroes.

Comparison to Non-Cooperation Movement:

  • Goal:Complete independence vs. remedying specific wrongs and “swaraj.”
  • Methods:Law violation from the start vs. non-cooperation with foreign rule.
  • Participation:
    • Decline in protests by intelligentsia (lawyers, students).
    • Lower Muslim participation.
    • No major labor upsurge.
    • Increased peasant and business group participation.
  • Impact:
    • Three times more people imprisoned.
    • Stronger Congress organization.


Karachi Congress Session—1931

  • Date and Context: Held in March 1931 to endorse the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.
  • Execution of Bhagat Singh: Six days prior to the session, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru were executed.
  • Protests Against Gandhi: Throughout Gandhi’s journey to Karachi, black flag demonstrations were held by the Punjab Naujawan Bharat Sabha protesting his failure to commute the death sentence of the martyrs.

Congress Resolutions:

  • Admiration of Martyr’s Bravery: Congress admired the bravery and sacrifice of the three martyrs while disapproving of political violence.
  • Endorsement of Gandhi-Irwin Pact: The Delhi Pact was endorsed.
  • Reiteration of Purna Swaraj: Reiterated the goal of complete independence.

Adoption of Resolutions:

  • Fundamental Rights: Guaranteed free speech, assembly, press, universal adult franchise, equality irrespective of caste, creed, and sex, among others.
  • National Economic Programme: Included land reforms, relief from agricultural indebtedness, workers’ rights, state ownership of key industries, among others.

Significance: First time Congress outlined what swaraj would mean for the masses, emphasizing economic freedom alongside political freedom. The Karachi Resolution became the Congress’s basic political and economic programme for years to come.

Round Table Conferences (1930-1932)


  • Viceroy Lord Irwin and British PM Ramsay MacDonald agreed to a conference due to the inadequate Simon Commission report.

First Round Table Conference (London, Nov 1930 – Jan 1931)

  • Convened by: King George V, chaired by Ramsay MacDonald
  • Significance: First meeting between British and Indians as equals.
  • Boycotted by: Indian National Congress and some business leaders.
  • Participants:
    • Princely States:Maharaja of Alwar, Baroda, Bhopal etc. (15 representatives)
    • Muslim League:Aga Khan III (leader), Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan etc. (10 representatives)
    • Hindu Mahasabha:S. Moonje, M.R. Jayakar etc. (3 representatives)
    • Other Groups:Sikhs, Parsis, Women (Begum Jahanara Shahnawaz, Radhabai Subbarayan), Liberals, Depressed Classes (B.R. Ambedkar), Justice Party, Labour, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians, Europeans, Landlords, Universities, Provinces etc. (around 30 representatives)
    • Government of India:Narendra Nath Law, Bhupendra Nath Mitra etc. (4 representatives)
  • Outcome:
    • Limited progress.
    • Agreed on India becoming a federation.
    • Safeguards for defense and finance discussed.
    • No concrete implementation plans.
    • Civil disobedience continued in India.
    • British realized Indian National Congress participation was crucial.

Second Round Table Conference (London, Sept 1931 – Dec 1931)


  • Indian National Congress rejoined talks after Gandhi-Irwin Pact.


  • Indian National Congress:Gandhi (sole representative), A. Rangaswami Iyengar, Madan Mohan Malaviya.
  • Princely States:Similar representation as 1st conference (15 representatives).
  • Muslim League:Aga Khan III, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan etc. (around 15 representatives).
  • Other Groups:Hindu Mahasabha, Liberals, Depressed Classes (B.R. Ambedkar), Justice Party, Sikhs, Parsis, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians, Europeans, Landlords, Universities, Provinces etc. (around 40 representatives).
  • Government of India:P. Ramaswami Iyer, Narendra Nath Law, M. Ramachandra Rao (3 representatives).


  • Lord Irwin replaced by Lord Willingdon as Viceroy.
  • British Labour government replaced by National Government (coalition of Labour and Conservatives).
  • Increased revolutionary activities in India angered the British.
  • Right-wing British politicians opposed negotiations with Congress.
  • Disagreements among delegates:
    • Gandhi claimed Congress represented all of India (others disagreed).
    • Many delegates were conservative, loyalists, or communalists.
    • Deadlock on separate electorates for minorities (Muslims, Depressed Classes, Christians, Anglo-Indians).
    • Princes unenthusiastic about federation with a Congress-led center.

Gandhi’s Demands:

  • Equal partnership between Britain and India.
  • Immediate establishment of responsible government at center and provinces.
  • Congress as sole representative of political India.
  • No separate electorate for Depressed Classes (considered Hindus).
  • No separate electorates or safeguards for other minorities.


  • No agreement on India’s constitutional future.
  • MacDonald announced:
    • Two Muslim-majority provinces (NWFP and Sindh).
    • Indian Consultative Committee.
    • Three expert committees (finance, franchise, states).
    • Potential for unilateral British decision on communal representation.
  • Indian demand for freedom not conceded.
  • Gandhi returned to India (December 1931).


Third Round Table Conference (London, Nov 1932 – Dec 1932)


  • Ignored by Indian National Congress, Gandhi, and most Indian leaders.
  • Represented by:
    • Princely States (12 representatives).
    • Aga Khan III, B.R. Ambedkar, and others (around 20 representatives).


  • Limited achievement.
  • Recommendations published in a White Paper (March 1933).
  • Led to the Government of India Act of 1935.


Civil Disobedience Resumed (1932-1934)


  • Second Round Table Conference failed (December 1931).
  • Congress Working Committee decided to resume civil disobedience (December 1931).

Truce Period Activity (March-December 1931):

  • Limited defiance continued:
    • Rent reduction movement in United Provinces.
    • Anti-taxation protests in NWFP.
    • Political detentions in Bengal.

British Policy Shift:

  • British aimed to:
    • Prevent Gandhi from mobilizing mass support.
    • Maintain loyalty of government officials and anti-Congress groups.
    • Suppress rural nationalism.

Government Crackdown:

  • Gandhi arrested (January 4, 1932).
  • Repressive ordinances implemented:
    • Banned Congress activities.
    • Arrested activists, leaders, and sympathizers.
    • Confiscated properties.
    • Suppressed press and nationalist literature.
  • Harsh repression against women.

Popular Response:

  • Large-scale protests despite limited preparation:
    • Around 80,000 satyagrahis (mostly poor) jailed in first four months.
    • Picketing of shops selling liquor and foreign cloth.
    • Illegal gatherings, demonstrations, and national day celebrations.
    • Symbolic flag hoisting, tax resistance, salt satyagraha, forest law violations.
    • Installation of a secret radio transmitter near Bombay.
    • Uprisings in Kashmir and Alwar princely states.

Movement’s End (April 1934):

  • Difficulty sustaining protests due to:
    • Lack of time for preparation.
    • Unprepared public.
  • Gandhi called off movement.
  • Public spirit not broken despite repression.


Communal Award and Poona Pact

Communal Award (August 16, 1932):

  • Announced by British PM Ramsay MacDonald.
  • Based on Indian Franchise Committee findings.
  • Established separate electorates and reserved seats for minorities:
    • Muslims
    • Europeans
    • Sikhs
    • Indian Christians
    • Anglo-Indians
    • Depressed Classes (78 seats)
    • Marathas (Bombay)

Opposition to Communal Award:

  • Seen as “divide and rule” tactic by the British.
  • B.R. Ambedkar previously advocated separate electorates for Depressed Classes.
  • Congress, led by Gandhi, opposed separate electorates but wouldn’t reject the award outright.
  • Gandhi rejected Ambedkar’s proposal for compromise, fearing political consequences.

Main Provisions of Communal Award:

  • Separate electorates for various groups, including Depressed Classes for 20 years.
  • Doubling of provincial legislature seats.
  • Weighted representation for Muslims in some areas.
  • 3% reservation for women in provincial legislatures (except NWFP).
  • Depressed Classes classified as a minority with “double vote”:
    • One vote in separate electorate.
    • One vote in general electorate.
  • Reserved seats for laborers, landlords, traders, and industrialists.
  • Maratha seats in Bombay province.

Congress and Gandhi’s Response:

  • Congress disapproved of separate electorates but wouldn’t unilaterally change the award.
  • Gandhi saw it as a threat to Indian unity and social progress.
  • He argued separate electorates wouldn’t solve untouchability and would perpetuate it.
  • Gandhi demanded joint electorates with increased reserved seats for Depressed Classes.
  • He went on an indefinite fast (September 20, 1932) to pressure for his demands.

Poona Pact (September 24, 1932):

  • Negotiated by leaders including Ambedkar, M.C. Raja, and Madan Mohan Malaviya.
  • Ended separate electorates for Depressed Classes.
  • Increased reserved seats for Depressed Classes:
    • 147 in provincial legislatures.
    • 18% in Central Legislature.
  • Poona Pact accepted by government as an amendment to the Communal Award.

Impact of Poona Pact on Dalits:

  • Provided some political rights but failed to achieve full emancipation.
  • Perpetuated the existing Hindu social order with limitations:
    • Made Dalits potential political tools for Hindu organizations.
    • Hindered development of independent Dalit leadership.
    • Reinforced their subordinate position within the Hindu social order.
    • Potentially obstructed progress towards an egalitarian society.
    • Limited recognition of Dalit rights in the future Indian Constitution.

Criticisms of Joint Electorates:

  • Scheduled Caste Federation argued joint electorates prevented Dalits from electing true representatives.
  • Claimed Hindu majority could choose Dalit candidates who served their interests.
  • Ambedkar continued to criticize the Poona Pact until 1947.


Gandhi’s Harijan Campaign and Thoughts on Caste

Campaign Against Untouchability (1932-1934):

  • Motivations:
    • Counteract British “divide and rule” tactics.
    • Eradicate untouchability within Hinduism.
  • Initiatives:
    • Founded All India Anti-Untouchability League (Sept 1932, in jail).
    • Launched weekly newspaper “Harijan” (Jan 1933, in jail).
    • Conducted nationwide Harijan tour (Nov 1933 – July 1934):
      • Covered 20,000 km.
      • Raised funds for Harijan Sevak Sangh (servants’ society).
      • Advocated for ending untouchability.
    • Undertook fasts (May 8 & Aug 16, 1934) to pressure for change.

Challenges and Criticisms:

  • Faced opposition from orthodox Hindus:
    • Disrupted meetings.
    • Accused him of attacking Hinduism.
    • Supported government against him.
  • Temple Entry Bill defeated (August 1934) due to Hindu opposition.

Gandhi’s Core Beliefs:

  • Hinduism responsible for oppressing Dalits (Harijans).
  • Complete eradication of untouchability, including temple access for Dalits.
  • Caste Hindus must repent for mistreating Dalits.
  • Open to dialogue with critics like Ambedkar.
  • Based campaign on humanism and reason, not religious scripture.

Views on Caste System:

  • Distinguished between untouchability and caste system:
    • Opposed untouchability, not the entire caste system.
    • Believed caste system could function cooperatively without hierarchy.
    • Hoped for cooperation between supporters and critics of the caste system.

Impact of the Campaign:

  • Gradually brought Dalits into the nationalist movement.
  • Inspired internal reforms among Dalits (education, hygiene, etc.).
  • Increased Dalit participation in national and peasant movements.


  • Gandhi opposed using force against orthodox Hindus.
  • Focused on Hindu religious reform, not broader social change.


Ideological Differences and Similarities between Gandhi and Ambedkar

Similarities in Symbolism:

  • Both engaged in symbolic acts like burning foreign cloth and Manusmriti, representing bondage and slavery.
  • Gandhi’s salt march and Ambedkar’s protest at the Mahad tank were acts of political catharsis.

Views on Freedom:

  • Gandhi believed in wresting freedom from authority through people’s efforts.
  • Ambedkar expected freedom to be bestowed by imperial rulers.

Approach to Democracy:

  • Ambedkar advocated for the parliamentary system, while Gandhi had reservations about its efficacy.

Flexibility of Ideology:

  • Gandhi had few rigidities in ideology, emphasizing non-violence.
  • Ambedkar’s principles were more rigid, with a preference for institutional frameworks.

Perception of Indian Unity:

  • Gandhi emphasized the unity of India pre-British rule.
  • Ambedkar saw Indian unity as a by-product of the legal system introduced by the imperial state.

Views on Rural India:

  • Gandhi saw ‘Gramraj’ as true independence, promoting village life.
  • Ambedkar believed ‘Gramraj’ would perpetuate social hierarchy and inequality.

Approach to Social Integration:

  • Ambedkar negated the use of force, emphasizing education for change.

Views on Caste and Religion:

  • Gandhi distinguished between caste and varna, seeing caste as a degeneration.
  • Ambedkar denounced Hindu scriptures and saw caste as intrinsic to Hinduism.

Role of Religion in Society:

  • Both supported religion as an agent of social change.
  • Views on Sovereignty and Governance:
  • Both believed in limited sovereign power of the state and emphasized people’s sovereignty.

Perception of Violence:

  • Ambedkar saw non-violence as an end and justified relative violence.
  • Gandhi opposed violence in any form.

Approach to Mechanisation:

  • Gandhi was wary of mechanisation’s dehumanising impact.
  • Ambedkar believed machinery and modern civilisation were beneficial.

Method of Social Transformation:

  • Both advocated peaceful means for social transformation.

Approach to Law and Constitutionality:

  • Gandhi endorsed disobeying unjust laws for just outcomes.
  • Ambedkar emphasized adherence to law and constitutionality.

View on Untouchability:

  • Gandhi viewed untouchability as a part of Hindu society.
  • Ambedkar saw untouchability as a distinct issue, advocating legal remedies.

Conclusion: Despite their ideological differences, Gandhi and Ambedkar shared some common ground in their quest for social justice and transformation in India, albeit with varying approaches and emphases.

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